The Asperger syndrome is a developmental disorder,Which is marked by serious difficulties in social interaction, as well as a repetitive, stereotyped, limited repertoire of activities, occupations, interests. Asperger's syndrome from autism is characterized by the preservation of speech, as well as cognitive abilities, expressed by clumsiness. This disorder received its name in honor of Hans Asperger, an Austrian pediatrician and psychiatrist, who described in 1944 children who are characterized by a lack of abilities for nonverbal communication and a limited
Concerning peers. Asperger himself applied the significance of the disorder to the physical awkwardness of children.
The term Asperger syndrome was first proposed in1981 by the English psychiatrist Lorna Wing. The modern concept of the disorder arose in the same 1981 and, in the early 1990s, diagnostic standards were developed.
Regarding various aspects of the syndrome, there are many unresolved issues and it remains unknown whether this disorder differs from the highly functional
. It was generally suggested to abandon the diagnosisAsperger syndrome, changing it for a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder with a more precise degree of severity. Finally, the exact cause of this syndrome is not established, although studies do not exclude the possibility of a genetic base, but there is no known genetic etiology. Difficulties arise with treatment: there is no single, and existing methods of treatment support are limited.
The condition of many children is getting better as you goHowever, communication and social problems may persist. Individual researchers, as well as individuals with this disorder, believe it is right to attribute Asperger's syndrome to difference, not disability. This disorder refers to general impairment of personality development. Statistics have information that boys are more likely to be affected, and of all reported cases, they are 80%. Some scientists suggest that this syndrome indicates a significant difference in the functioning of the brain in men than in women and therefore men are much more likely to be talented and brilliant. This disorder of psyche was noted in Newton, Einstein, directed by Steven Spielberg.
At the present time, there is no consensusCall this symptom complex: a syndrome or a disorder. The researchers proposed to rename the Asperger syndrome in the disease of the autistic spectrum, dividing it into severity.
So, Asperger's syndrome is a lifelongA disorder characterized by severe difficulties in social interaction, perception of the world around them, as well as a repetitive, stereotypical set of activities and interests.
Causes of Asperger Syndrome
Uniform and precise causes of the diseaseIt is not revealed, presumably it has the same roots with autism. The main role in the development of this syndrome is attributed to the genetic factor (heredity). There are cases when representatives of one family to some extent have symptoms of Asperger syndrome.
The causes of the disorder are also attributed to the influence of biological, and harmful (teratogenic) factors acting on the woman's organism at the beginning of pregnancy.
In addition, they assume the influence of environmental factors after birth, but this theory exists without scientific confirmation.
Symptoms of Asperger Syndrome
Being a hidden disorder, it is very difficult to identify Asperger syndrome in appearance.
Diagnose the disorder according to the known triad of disorders:
- Social communication;
- Social interaction;
- Social imagination.
Children with Asperger's syndrome are significantly different from other children, and the child suffering from this syndrome also notes that it is different from others.
Asperger syndrome in children and its symptomsAffect communication. Disorder is expressed in the complexity of understanding intonations, gestures, facial expressions. The kid is not able to intone his speech and can not understand the emotions of other people. In appearance, such a child seems indifferent, as well as emotionally balanced. This provokes a difficulty in communication and inability to make friends.
Children with this disorder can not startConversation, find an interesting topic for conversation, can not understand that it's time to end the conversation, if it still took place, but does not represent any interest for the interlocutor. Toddlers use sentences and complex words not fully and without understanding their meaning, but often putting their knowledge into the impasse of the interlocutor. Such children are characterized by a literal understanding of information, this or that phrase, they lack a sense of humor, they do not understand the veiled turns of speech, irony and sarcasm. The syndrome of Asperger in adults and its symptoms are noted in social interaction. Such people do not understand unwritten social rules (one should not stand too close to the interlocutor, thereby violating the living space, it is necessary to observe the rules of decency and tact in the speech).
People who suffer from Asperger syndrome are difficult to create, and also to maintain friendly ties.
They can not realize that friendship presupposesSuch concepts as empathy, ability to wait, support each other, empathy, discussion not only of his interesting topics, but also of the interests of a friend. Often, tactlessness, as well as incorrectness in communicating with other individuals, repels them.
After a time with Asperger's syndromeLearn the norms of behavior, as well as the concepts of friendship, which is based on intuitive copying. The patients themselves often have a subtle emotional organization, but often offend those around them with personal statements, themselves not understanding and not wanting it. People with this syndrome often have a rich imagination and imagination. Among them are many famous writers, scientists, musicians.
The syndrome of Asperger in adults is manifested in notThe ability to play role-playing and creative games, people find it difficult to portray and pretend to be someone. Such people give preference to those classes and games where a sequence of actions and logic are required (solving mathematical problems, solving puzzles, crossword puzzles). Considering the world chaotic and chaotic, these people are trying to establish a certain and strict order in their world. They tend to create certain rigid rules and rituals, strictly conforming to them and forcing them to obey others. For example, the road to work should be the same, without any deviations, the rules of also delays. Any shift is capable of provoking a marked anxiety, depression. For adults suffering from this disorder, it often causes some difficulty, as well as the ability to interpret intonations, feelings, thoughts of other people, because they are not able to perceive the body language (facial expressions and gestures). It is very difficult for them to perceive the opinions of other people, because it is often different from their own.
Symptoms of Asperger Syndrome
The disorder reveals itself in the following symptoms: obsession with narrow interests, sensory disorders, physical clumsiness, sleeping problems.
People with this syndrome are prone to obsessionExcessive collecting, hobbies, and other hobbies. And all these hobbies can be so narrow that they are often incomprehensible to others. Often the interests are reduced, first of all, to the means of transportation, mathematics, computers, astronomy. Knowledge in the topics of interest to them are so profound that they achieve success in the professional sphere.
Individuals with this syndrome are sometimes very sensitive and do not tolerate bright light, noise, certain types of food, sharp odors.
Asperger syndrome in children is noted inInadequate development of skills that require dexterity, children often face difficulties in developing fine motor skills (difficult to cut with scissors, write, sculpt). Their gait can be unstable, unsteady, due to violations of coordination of movements. Such individuals can not make successive small movements. They have problems and difficulties with sleep (nocturnal awakenings, problems with falling asleep, a heavy early morning rise).
Diagnosis of Asperger syndrome is carried outA group of specialists from different fields. Genetic, neurological examinations are carried out, psychomotor skills are studied, intellectual tests are conducted, abilities for independent life are determined.
Asperger syndrome is diagnosed in the age range from 3 to 10 years and the earlier the diagnosis is established, the less traumatic it is for the family and for the child.
Features of the disorder in toddlers can be detected by teachers, parents, doctors, observing the development, but the final confirmation of the diagnosis is made by a child or adolescent psychiatrist.
To exclude organic brain diseases, neurological diagnosis (MRI of the brain, EEG) is performed.
Treatment of Asperger's Syndrome
There is no special treatment for the syndromeAsperger. Pharmacological support on an individual basis includes the appointment of psychotropic drugs (psychostimulants, neuroleptics, antidepressants). Non-drug therapy consists of trainings on teaching social skills, classes with speech therapist, exercise therapy, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy.
The effectiveness of social adaptation of children with Asperger's syndrome depends on the correct organization of psychological and pedagogical support for the child at various stages of his life.
Children with Asperger syndrome can visitBut they need to create individualized learning conditions (organize a stable environment, create motivation, promote academic success, accompany a tutor, etc.).
This disorder is not completely overcome andThe child, growing up, remains with the same problems. One third of sick people in adulthood create families, live independently, and work in regular work. The most successful are individuals who show a high level of competence in the areas of interest to them.