Psychology of communication

Pedagogical communication - styles, structure, functions and fundamentals

Pedagogical communication is a multifaceted,professional communication of teachers in the process of learning with students, which includes the development and establishment of communication, interaction and mutual understanding between teachers and students.
The effectiveness of pedagogical communication directly depends on the degree of satisfaction experienced by each of the participants in the context of actual needs.

Teaching communication styles

The factors that influence the development of the student's personality are the styles of pedagogical communication.
The style of pedagogical communication and leadershipdetermine the methods and methods of educational influence that manifest themselves in the set of expectations and requirements of the behavior of pupils. Style is embodied in the forms of organization of activities, as well as communication of children, having certain ways in implementing relationships with children. Traditionally, authoritarian, democratic and liberal styles of pedagogical communication are singled out.
Democratic style of pedagogical communicationThe most effective, as well as optimal is the democratic style of interaction. It is marked by a characteristic broad contact with pupils, a display of respect and trust, in which the teacher tries to establish emotional interaction with the child, does not suppress the person with punishment and severity;
is marked by positive assessments.
A democratic educator needs a needfeedback from pupils, namely how they perceive the forms of joint activity, whether they are able to recognize their mistakes. The work of such a teacher is aimed at stimulating mental activity and motivation in achieving cognitive activity. In groups of educators, where communication is built on democratic tendencies, appropriate conditions for the development of children's relationships are noted, as well as the emotional positive climate of the group.
Democratic style of pedagogical communicationcreates friendly understanding between pupils and the teacher, causes children only positive emotions, develops self-confidence, and also allows to understand values ​​in cooperation of joint activity.
Authoritarian style of pedagogical communicationAuthoritarian teachers, on the contrary, are marked by pronounced attitudes, selectivity towards pupils. Such educators often use prohibitions, as well as restrictions on children, excessive abuse of negative assessments.
Authoritarian style of pedagogical communication -severity and punishment in the relationship between the teacher and children. An authoritarian educator expects only obedience, he is singled out by a huge number of educational influences for all their monotony.
Authoritative style of pedagogical communication leadsto conflict, as well as ill-will in relations, thereby creating unfavorable conditions in the upbringing of preschool children. Authoritarianism of the teacher often comes as a consequence of a lack of the level of psychological culture, as well as the desire to accelerate the pace in the development of pupils, despite individual characteristics.
Often, teachers use authoritarian techniquesof good intentions, because they are convinced that breaking the children, and also achieving maximum results, you can soon achieve the desired goals. The expressed authoritarian style of the teacher puts him in a position of alienation from pupils, as each child begins to experience a state of anxiety and insecurity, uncertainty and tension. This is due to underestimating the development of children's initiative, independence, exaggeration of indiscipline, laziness and irresponsibility.
Liberal style of pedagogical communication ForThis style is characterized by irresponsibility, lack of initiative, inconsistency in the actions and decisions taken, lack of determination in difficult situations.
The liberal educator forgets about the formerdemands and after a certain time presents the opposite to them. Often such a teacher lets things go on their own and overestimates the chances of children. He does not check to what extent his requirements were met, and the assessment of pupils by a liberal educator directly depends on the mood: a good mood is the prevalence of positive assessments, a bad one - negative assessments. This behavior can lead to a drop in the eyes of children's authority teacher.
A liberal educator tries to keepgood relations, does not spoil relations with anyone, in behavior is benevolent and affectionate. Always perceives pupils as independent, initiative, sociable, truthful.
The styles of pedagogical communication, beingcharacteristics of the individual, are not innate qualities, but are brought up and formed in the process of pedagogical practice on the basis of awareness of the basic laws of the formation and development of the system of human relations. But to this or that style of formation of communication have personal specific characteristics.
People are self-confident, self-confident, aggressive andunbalanced are prone to an authoritarian style. To a democratic style, individuals with adequate self-esteem, balanced, benevolent, sensitive and attentive to people are inclined. In life in a "pure" form, each of the styles is rare. In practice, often each individual teacher manifests a "mixed style" of interaction with pupils.
The mixed style is marked by the predominance of two styles: democratic and authoritarian or democratic and liberal. Occasionally, the features of a liberal and authoritarian style are combined.
Currently, great importance is given to psychological knowledge in the establishment of interpersonal contacts, as well as the establishment of relationships between the teacher and students.
Psychological and pedagogical communication includesinteraction of teacher-educator with students, colleagues, parents, as well as representatives of public administration and education bodies, carried out for professional activities. Specificity of psychological and pedagogical communication is the psychological competence of the teacher in the field of social and differential psychology in interaction with children.

Structure of pedagogical communication

In the structure of pedagogical communication, the following stages are distinguished:
1. The prognostic stage (modeling by the teacher of the future communication (the teacher outlines the contours of interaction: he plans, and also predicts the structure, content, means of communication.) The decisive role in this process is the target setting of the teacher.It should take care of attracting students to interact, create a creative atmosphere, and open the world of the individuality of the child.) 2. Communicative attack (its essence is the conquest of the initiative, as well as the establishment of business and emotional contact), the teacher is important et entering into interaction technique and techniques of dynamic influence:

- infection (the purpose of which is an emotional, subconscious response in interaction on the basis of empathy with them, is non-verbal in nature);
- suggestion (conscious infection of motivations with the help of speech influence);
- conviction (reasoned, conscious and motivated influence on the individual's system of views);
- imitation (implies the assimilation of the forms of behavior of another person, which is based on the conscious and subconscious identification of oneself with it).
3. The management of communication is aimed at a conscious and purposeful organization of interaction. It is very important to create an atmosphere of goodwill in which the student freely manifests his / her self, receives positive emotions from communication. The teacher, in turn, should show interest in the students, actively perceive information from them, give an opportunity to express their opinions, pass on their optimism to the students, and also confidence in success and outline ways to achieve the goals.
4. Analysis of communication (comparison of goals, means with the results of interaction, as well as modeling of further communication).
Perceptual component of pedagogical communicationis aimed at studying, perceiving, understanding and evaluating partners in communicating each other. The personality of the teacher, his professional and individual psychological qualities are an important condition that determine the nature of the dialogue. To the important professional qualities of the teacher include the ability to give an adequate assessment of the individual characteristics of students, their interests, inclinations, moods. Only the pedagogical process being built with this account is able to be effective.
The communicative component of pedagogical communication is determined by the nature of the interaction of the participants in the dialogue.
Early stages of pedagogical interaction withchild is noted by the lack of the potential of an equal participant in the exchange of information, because the child does not have sufficient knowledge for this. The teacher is the bearer of human experience, embedded in the educational program of knowledge. But this does not mean that the teacher's communication at an early stage is a one-way process. At present, it is not enough just to give students information. It is necessary to intensify the students' own efforts to acquire knowledge.
Of particular importance are active methodstraining, which stimulate the independent finding of the necessary information by children, as well as its further use in a variety of conditions. Having mastered a large body of data and developed the ability to operate with them, students become equal participants in the educational dialogue, making a significant contribution to communication.

Functions of pedagogical communication

Pedagogical communication is considered asthe establishment of interpersonal close relationships based on the degree of community of interests, thoughts, feelings; the establishment of a friendly, benevolent atmosphere between the object and the subject, which ensures the most effective process of education and training, mental and intellectual development of a person preserving the uniqueness and individuality of personal characteristics.
Pedagogical communication is multifaceted, where each side is marked by the context of interaction.
The functions of pedagogical communication are divided into denoting, cognitive, emotive, facilitation, regulatory, self-actualization functions.
Communication for the interest in the success of the student, as well as the maintenance of benevolent contact and the atmosphere, facilitates self-actualization and further development of the pupil.
Pedagogical communication should ensure respectto the personality of the child. The understanding and perception of the pupil's personality by the teacher is the knowledge of the spiritual world, the physical states of the child, individual and age, mental, national and other differences, mental neoplasms and the manifestation of sensitivity.
Understanding of the student's personality by the teacher forms the atmosphere of the attitude towards him, as well as goodwill, contributes to determining the prospects for the development of the personality and their regulation.
The function of understanding and perception of the student's personality by the teacher should be regarded as the most important.
The information function is responsible forpsychological real contact with students, develops the process of cognition, gives an exchange of spiritual and material values, creates mutual understanding, forms cognitive search for solutions, positive motivation in achieving success in learning and self-education, in the formation of personality, eliminates psychological barriers, establishes interpersonal relations in the team.
The information function is responsible for organizinggroup, individual, collective communication. Individual communication promotes the knowledge of the personality, as well as the impact on its consciousness, behavior, as well as its correction and change.
Contact function - establishing a contact for mutual readiness to transmit and receive educational information.
The stimulus function is the stimulation of the pupil's activity, directed at the performance of training activities.
Emotional function - stimulation in the student of the necessary emotional experiences, as well as change with his help of their own states and experiences.
Pedagogical communication should have a focus onhuman dignity and great importance in productive communication play such ethical values ​​as: frankness, honesty, trust, unselfishness, mercy, care, gratitude, loyalty to the word.

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