Theories of personality are different assumptions,A complex of hypotheses, a set of concepts and approaches that explain the origin of the personality, the determinism of its development. The theory of personality development seeks not only to interpret its essence, but also to anticipate human behavior. It provides researchers and theorists with an opportunity to understand the nature of the human subject, helps to find answers to rhetorical questions that they constantly ask. Personality theories in psychology can be briefly represented by seven basic concepts, each of which is characterized by its own perceptions of the personality structure and properties, has specific methods for measuring them. Hence it can be deduced that the personality is a multidimensional structure and a multidimensional system of psychological characteristics that ensure individuality, temporal and situational constancy of human behavior. In total there are about forty approaches and concepts aimed at studying the personality of the human subject.
Theories of personality in psychology
It is believed that the human
Originally born into the world by man. This statement at first glance is true. However, it is based solely on the genetic conditioning of the emergence of congenital prerequisites for the formation of human qualities and attributes. Thus, for example, a newborn baby's body shape assumes the ability to erect, the structure of the brain provides an opportunity for intellectual development, the configuration of the hands - the prospect of using tools. These all listed newborn baby differs from the baby of the animal. Thus, the infant initially refers to the human race and is called an individual, whereas the baby of the animal will be called exclusively the individual throughout his entire existence.
The term "individual" contains a generic accessoryRights. A child and an adult, a wise man and oligophrenic, an aborigine living in a tribe far from civilization, and a highly educated resident of a developed country can be considered an individual. In other words, characterizing a person as an individual means nothing specific about him. Appearing in this world as an individual, a person acquires a specific social quality and becomes a person.
The individual is included as a child in the currentHistorically the system of social relations. The further development of the subject in the society forms such intertwining of mutual relations which creates it as the person - the system social property acquired by the human subject in the process of communicative interaction and objective activity, characterizing the degree and quality of the representation of social interactions in the individual.
Since psychology offers a singlePersonality can not be determined, personality theories in foreign psychology and in domestic science are actively developing, but the most significant of the foreign concepts are:
- psychodynamic theory of personality (a fundamental factor in the development of the personality - innate instincts);
- dispositional theory of personality or theoryBecause her adherents were convinced that human subjects have certain dispositions (predispositions, traits) to a certain behavioral response to various "irritants"; in other words, followers of this trend assumed that individuals are stable in their own thoughts, are constant in actions and feelings not Depending on events, circumstances, life experience;
- phenomenological (consists in the conviction that the individual aspire to
And is characterized by a positive nature);
Cognitive theory of personality (cognitive functions and intellectual processes have a huge influence on human behavior);
- theory of learning or behavioral theory of personality, the main thesis is to convince that the personality is an individual acquired experience in the process of life activity.
All the above theory of personality in a foreignPsychology try to answer the most important question of modern psychological science: what is a person, what is his essence, what drives his development.
Each of these approaches represents a specific vision, a separate fragment of the whole picture of such a complex and at the same time integral mechanism called personality.
Behavioral theory of personality is based onThe conviction that the environment is the source of the development of the personality, that the personality itself does not contain anything of psychological or genetic inheritance. It is exclusively a product of learning, and personality properties are generalized social skills and behavioral reflexes.
Analytical theory of personality, in its turn,Formulated by Jung, is based on the belief that innate psychological factors cause the development of personality. The individual inherited from parents receives ready-made primary ideas, which Jung called "archetypes."
Within the framework of domestic research in the field ofPsychological science the leading role in the explanation of personality belongs to the activity approach, the basis of which is the subtype of objective activity developed by K. Marx. As a principle that explains mental processes, the category of activity is used in the study of various areas of mental reality. Since in fact in the concrete activity of the individual and its generation, objective expression is found not only by psychic phenomena and the subjective consciousness of the individual, but also by social consciousness.
Theories of personality in domestic psychology can beCombine the common main task, which was to study the dependence of the composite elements of consciousness on the characteristics of the stimuli that cause them. Later, this two-component scheme found its reflection in the formula "stimulus equals reaction" (S-R), which can not be considered entirely true, since it excludes a meaningful process that realizes the real connections of the individual with the object environment. The concepts of learning do not take into account anything that falls under the definition of consciousness, feeling, imagination and will. The processes realizing the life of the subjects in the surrounding reality, its social existence in all the diversity of forms, are activities.
The most famous personality theories in Russian psychology are related to the scientific research of the supporters of L.Vygotsky's training, in particular, L. Bozhovich and A. Leontiev.
The concept proposed by the domestic psychologistL. Bozhovich, covers the period of personal formation from early childhood to the youth stage. To describe the personality, Bozhovich uses concepts that characterize the internal traits and characteristics of individuals. She believed that the person becomes a person who has reached a certain level of development of mental processes, which has the ability to perceive and experience his own "persona" as an indivisible whole, different from the surrounding people and manifested in the concept of "I". In other words, at this level of mental processes the person is able to act consciously on the surrounding reality, modify it and change himself.
Bozhovich, based on the definition of the "social situation of formation" and the principle of "leading activity", previously introduced by L. Vygotsky, showed how in the difficult dynamics of interaction
And the activities of the child at different stages of his lifeA certain view of the surrounding reality is developed, which is called the internal position. This position was considered to be a proponent of this approach by one of the most significant characteristics of the personality, a prerequisite for its development.
The activity theory of personality, developed by A. Leontiev, who continued to develop the theories of L. Vygotsky and S. Rubinstein, under the person considered the product of social development, and the basis for it was the totality of the social relationships of the individual carried out by his activities. It is through activity that a person can influence things, nature or surrounding people. In relation to the society, he acts as a person, and to things as a subject.
Thus, in accordance with the activityAspect of the concept described, as individual constituents, individual characteristics or personality characteristics. Supporters of this concept believed that personal properties are formed due to activities carried out always in a certain socio-historical context. Personal traits, in this connection, are considered as socially (normatively) deterministic elements. So, for example, persistence is developed in such types of activity, where the individual manifests independence.
Unlike the concept
, The activity theory of personality by the mechanism of learning the subject was not considered a reflex, but the process of internalization, through which personal qualities are developed.
Basic theory of personality
During the twentieth century in practiceWorld psychological science there were three core directions, in the future within the framework of which the most significant modern theories of personality were formed.
The basic theories of personality in psychology are summarized below. They include the humanistic concept, the psychoanalytic trend and topological psychology.
The humanistic direction, with superficial examination, seems to be the opposite of the psychoanalytic theory, but the presence of the same characteristics unites them.
In contrast to the approach based onPsychoanalytical training, which refers to the experiences experienced by the child, forced into the unconscious, to find the source of activity, the humanistic theory of personality considers the main factor in personal activity as an aspiration for the future,
And maximum self-realization.
Supporters of the humanistic trend consideredThe nature of a person is essentially good or neutral. The subject is free to choose the solutions, therefore, he is responsible for them. Man is a being with activity, oriented toward distant goals, capable of moving towards them. Under the main driving force of personal functioning, the followers of this approach considered the desire for self-actualization or the individual's need to realize his own innate potential.
An important feature of the humanistic trend is the holistic and phenomenological approaches.
The first approach is based on the postulate thatThe human individual is an integrated whole that is not reduced to individual structures of his personality. The basis of the second direction is psychological reality, in other words, a subjective experience, according to which reality is interpreted.
In the personal formation, according toOf the concept under consideration, it is important to have an attitude towards an individual of a significant environment for him, especially his parents. The emerging I-concept of the baby corresponds to all innate potentials possible only in conditions of receiving from full grown adults full acceptance and respect, that is, unconditional positive attention. This or another personal type is due to the "quality" of positive attention received by a person throughout life.
According to the humanistic concept of Rogers, there are two opposing personality types: "unadapted personality" and "fully functioning personality".
The humanistic theory of personality briefly considers the individual initially good, possessing innate spiritual qualities and needs (for example,
, Self-development, knowledge of the world, comprehend the meaningOwn being, good). At the same time, such needs can be temporarily blocked due to unfavorable circumstances or conditions of life and do not manifest themselves in behavioral actions of a person.
A. Maslow developed and proposed a hierarchy of needs, which consists of successively standing steps. At the first stage, the lowest requirements (physiological) are placed, in other words what is controlled by the organs of the body (for example, breathing, eating, sexual attraction). The next step is the striving for health, material security (the need for reliability). At the third stage there is a need for communication, understanding people, caresses (social needs). At the next stage Maslow placed the need for awareness of personal dignity, respect, prestige, social success. The fifth stage is self-development, that is, the need for self-realization and self-actualization, in understanding one's own destiny in the world.
Maslow defined the principles
- motives are characterized by a hierarchical structure;
- motives are characterized by a dependence on the level,The higher their level, the less significant and vital are the corresponding needs, therefore, the longer they can not be realized; - as long as the needs at the lower levels remain unsatisfied, the higher ones remain uninteresting;
- as soon as the lower needs are satisfied, they lose their motivating power.
In addition, Maslow notes that the lack of benefits,A barrier to meet physiological needs, such as food, rest, safety, leads to the transformation of these needs into leading motives. Conversely, when basic needs are met, the individual begins to strive to realize higher needs. In other words, it is difficult to strive for self-development when the stomach is empty.
To the merits of the approach toDevelopment of personality can be attributed to the orientation of the individual as an active builder of his own life, who has unlimited abilities and potential. Disadvantage can be considered indeterminism, disregard of the natural predetermination of human existence.
Z. Freud proposed his own interpretation of personality, which had a huge impact on psychotherapeutic practice and theory, psychological science, as well as on culture in general.
According to Freud's views, the activity of the individualCharacterized by a dependence on instinctive (subconscious motives), which, in the first turn, refers to the instinct of self-preservation and sexual instinct. However, in society, instincts can also be found freely, as in the animal world, since society imposes a lot of restrictions on the individual, exposes him to a rigid "censorship", which forces the person to suppress or inhibit them.
Thus, instinctual drives turn out to beOusted from the conscious life of the individual, because they are considered unacceptable, shameful, compromising. Because of this displacement, they pass into the unconscious, in other words, as it were, "go underground". At the same time they do not disappear, but they save their activity, which allows them to gradually, from the unconscious, control the behavior of the subject, subliming (transforming) into various variations of the culture of mankind and the products of people's activities.
In the unconscious subconsciousDrives are connected to different complexes depending on their own nature. These complexes, according to Freud's statement, are the real cause of personal activity. Therefore, an important task of psychological science is the discovery of unconscious complexes and the facilitation of their disclosure, an awareness that leads to the overcoming of intrapersonal confrontations (the method of psychoanalysis). A vivid example of such reasons is the Oedipus complex.
Advantages of the theory of personalityAre the study of the field of the unconscious, the use of clinical methods, the study of the real problems of the client. Disadvantage can be considered metaphorical, subjectivism, orientation to the past.
Topological psychology is based on theMathematical science of the term "field". She explains personal behavior by the fact that the various points and zones of the living space, that is, the fields in which she lives, the subject exists, becomes the motives for his behavioral response due to the fact that he feels the need for them. With the disappearance of the need for them, the value of the object is lost. The supporter of this concept was K.Levin. He did not see in the need for predetermination of a biological nature, in contrast to adherents of psychoanalysis. Motivation is due not to the innate properties of the individual, but to its mutually consistent actions with the field, which is characterized by the presence of several objects in different ways.
The main modern theories of personality are represented by two most famous concepts, in addition to the theory of learning. These concepts are associated with the names of E. Berne and K. Platonov.
The essence of Platonov's concept isThe consideration of the personality as a structure consisting of separate components, such as: direction, experience, features of mental functions, biopsychic properties. These listed components in the process of interaction cause human behavior. E. Berne is convinced that man simultaneously combines several types of behavioral response, each of which is included due to the impact of certain conditions.
Berne developed a theory
, Where the transaction is a unit of communication,Consisting of an incentive and reaction. People who are in the same community will inevitably talk to each other or will find their own awareness about the presence around other individuals. Berne called this phenomenon a transactional stimulus. The subject to whom the transaction incentive is directed, will say something or make in response. This phenomenon he called transactional reaction.
Berne argued that transactions stem from theA certain sequence one by one. Such a sequence is not random. It is planned by society, situation or personality.
Platonov developed the theory of dynamicFunctional personality structure and identified four hierarchical personality substructures. He considered the main personal substructures: personal orientation, experience, peculiarities of psychic processes and biopsychic properties. Each of these substructures, in turn, combines a number of components, which Platonov called "substructures of substructures."
The personal orientation includesAttitudes, ideology, ideals, aspirations, interests and desires. Experience consists of habits, skills, skills and knowledge. Peculiarities of mental processes unite sensations, perceptions, mental activity, emotional sphere, memory, will and attention. Biopsychic properties consist of temperament, sexual and a number of age features. In addition, all personality substructures are affected by the nature of the subject and ability.
Theory of Freud's personality
The second half of the 19th century marked itselfThe separation of psychology into a separate branch of science, the main task of which was the identification of the basic structures of the human psyche by means of introspection methods in the conditions of laboratories.
Therefore, the emergence of a radically new approach toThe study of human individuals gave rise to a staggering effect. Formulated by a young psychiatrist from Vienna, Z. Freud, the concept of personality presented the human subject not as a rational being, conscious of one's own behavior, but as a creature in an age-old confrontation, the sources of which lie in the unconscious.
The theory of the personality of Freud is based on a view,That the human subject is always in a state of confrontation with society, because this society drives him into the framework in which he can not realize all his desires and desires.
Freud believed that the process of developing the psycheDue to the need to adapt to the environment, which is predominantly hostile. The driving forces of the formation of the psyche, he believed innate drives and unconscious aspirations.
Psychoanalytic theory Freud based onPostulate that the foundation of the development of the psyche is the emotions and motivational sphere of the individual, and cognitive development is a consequence of the motivational, while other schools were based on the belief that the formation of the psyche is due to the development of the intellectual sphere.
Freud argued that the human psycheCombines three levels, namely: the layer of the conscious, the layer of the preconscious and the level of the unconscious. It was in them, as he supposed, that key personality structures are located. The content of the unconscious layer, while not accessible to understanding, and the contents of the preconscious level can be comprehended by man, but this requires considerable effort.
Freud singled out three elements in the personality structure: Eid, Ego, Super-Ego. The constituent element Id is located in the unconscious layer. In fact, it is the driving force behind the development of the psyche, because it contains the innate unconscious inclinations that tend to discharge, satisfaction, and thus condition the activity of the subject. Freud distinguished the two most important innate unconscious propensities - the instinct of life and death, among themselves in hostile relationships, forming the basis for a thorough, biological internal confrontation. The unconsciousness of such confrontation is connected with the struggle between aspirations, which flows on the unconscious level. In addition, human behavior is due to the simultaneous impact of both these instincts.
A constituent element of the ego, Freud also consideredAs a congenital structure. It is located simultaneously on a conscious level and in the pre-consciousness. The content of the Eid extends in the process of the life of the child, whereas the content of the Ego, on the contrary, narrows, because the infant is born already with the so-called "oceanic sense of Self", which contains the entire surrounding world.
The structure of the Super-Ego is not innate,Because it is formed during the life of the baby. The mechanism of its formation is the identification with close persons of its sex, the qualities and features of which become the content of the Super-Ego.
Freud accentuated that between the three constituent elements of personality described, there is a shaky balance.
Theories of personality Khyell, Ziegler
In the work of well-known researchers from America D. Ziegler and L. Hjell described the most important directions that give an interpretation
- psychodynamic theory of personality, developed by Freud;
- an individual personality theory, created on the basis of psychoanalytic studies by Adler;
- analytical theory of personality, formed by Jung;
- the ego-theory of Erickson, Fromm and Horney;
- dispositional approach in the studyPersonality, which includes the structural concept of personality traits of Kettel, the concept of personality types of Eysenck and Allport research called dispositional personality theory;
- the learning-behavioral approach introduced by Skinner;
- socio-cognitive theory of the personality of Rotter and Pandora;
- phenomenological theory of the formation of the personality of Rogers, etc.
D. Ziegler and L. Hjell decided to cover in their book the concept of personality formation, which made the most significant contribution to modern psychology.
They are convinced that the study of personality should reflect the basic theses of the theorist on the origin of man. It is this principle that guided the authors in writing the book.
Also in the work are described the main strategies,The scientists used to study the phenomena of personality. The authors outlined in the book practical ways of applying correlation analysis, the anamnesis method, and also formal experiments with the aim of evaluating the validity of theoretical assumptions. In addition, they described various methods of evaluation (for example, the interviewing method, projective tests) by which data on the individual are usually collected. Knowledge of these methods will allow readers to comprehend the value of evaluation in measuring the differences of subjects.
The main advantage of this work can be considered that, when presenting each approach, the authors give arguments "for" and "against" arguments.