Psychology of Thinking

Time management - time management, principles, rules

Time management is a way of organizingTime space for the purpose of its most economical and at the same time effective use. Time management has as its goal the training of conscious attention and control over time spent for the implementation of certain tasks. Initially, time management was used exclusively in the business sphere, but gradually its methods became relevant for organization and personal space. Methods of time management consist of a variety of techniques, including the initial setting of the goal, the planning of the necessary actions, the distribution and delegation of tasks, the compilation of priority lists.

Time management - what is it?

With information development and acceleration of the paceLife of society, as well as with increasing demands in the characteristics of work, people are required to perform increasing volumes of tasks. Satellites of this process are often deadlines and time pressures. Those who withstand such stress by exerting all their strength and finding the last reserves of the psyche are in chronic stress, nervous overwork, overactivity of mental systems, which entails neurological and psychosomatic disorders. To cope with the distribution of the load for optimization of work helps such technology as time management.
The main reason for the emergence of time managementIs an increase in the level of time deficit. This is the shortage of the time period allocated by the schedule for performing the dedicated work in connection with the incorrect organization of the activity by the employee or management. Causes of a time deficit is the lack of a work plan, inadequate assessment of a person's abilities, weak level of control over personal needs, lack or insufficient level
Effective time management is built on literatePlanning, which begins with a daily analysis of what actions were taken for how long, which makes it possible to draw up the most appropriate plan. In planning, it is worthwhile to divide the set goals according to their urgency and include only the volume of tasks that a person can really handle (do not paint all day, plan 60% of the time, and leave 40% for unforeseen tasks).
In the long term, an importantTop-down planning - the multi-year task is broken down into annual, annual to quarterly, then to monthly and daily plans. With an unexpected change in conditions, there is a need to redistribute tasks and put a question of their priority.

Time management - time management

Time planning includes both corporateTime management, and personal time management. From the first rules of the personal area - do not work in your spare time, try to finish all the working things in the allotted time, minimize the time costs for everyday life, plan your free time so that there are cultural and emotional events (concerts, exhibitions, theaters) , And physical (sports, active kinds of rest). It is worth paying special attention to leisure in the middle of the work week and filling at least one of the evenings with active pursuits, as well as free time on business trips, where several hours are devoted to sightseeing.
Basics of time management are based on managementThe most valuable and non-renewable resource - time. This life strategy includes theoretical aspects, certain philosophical views, as well as a number of defining principles and practical methods for structuring your time space. Of course, without internal awareness and maintaining the ideas of reasonable use of time, following practical recommendations will bring less effectiveness, which is due to the lack of stability in their implementation.
The modern name of this directionSelf-development does not reflect his recent appearance. Even in ancient times people were interested in the question of the most optimal organization of one's own being. The philosophers of the time, striving for greater efficiency, talked about the impact of planning activity on its productivity and focused on the performance of actions depending on their importance.
Now there are two main directions: Corporate time management and personal time management. Corporate is relevant in large companies, for managers planning the schedule of the entire enterprise, each department and the task of a particular person. For these purposes, the manager ranks the degree of significance of the current tasks and determines the terms of implementation, as well as the number of tasks to be given to the employee, and monitors the implementation.
For corporate time management - managementTime is characteristic of monitoring time costs for further planning the schedule. It is also important to set several tasks for a day, this prevents the stagnation of activities, if one of the tasks can not be performed at a given time interval for technical reasons.
Personal time management concerns a separateAnd can affect both his professional field, and the sphere of personal time, development, relationships. Personal time management is relevant, when in your head the panic idea of ​​"I do not have time" even more often turns. If you do not yet need the help of serious specialists, but you feel that the forces are running out, you are crouching, constantly working, and the lumen is not visible, so it's time to pay attention to your interaction with time. To adjust its use, time management will help, but before making practical recommendations, take a pause and determine what you are inwardly striving for, what are your true goals. With a lack of motivation and following other people's goals, competent planning will certainly improve the situation, but your eyes will not light up and your inspired motivation will not appear. The main guarantee of success and quick overcoming of the goals is a pleasure derived from the process of their implementation and completion.
Fundamentals of time management can reduce the exhaustion of mental reserves and increase productivity, not by applying more force, but with the help of their correct distribution.
Time management is not aimed atWork harder, stronger or all the time. This way about how to work effectively, so that the strength and inspiration remain to live and develop personal spheres that are fundamental for the normal self-awareness of the individual. The initial planning allows, spending on it up to ten minutes to save whole hours, which in the future can be spent with pleasure.
Effective time management is not somethingOut-of-bounds, requiring specific skills and training, it begins with the introduction of scheduled tasks into the list - write to notebook, put in the phone, use special applications, but the necessary goals must be fixed. This list should be viewed and checked for relevance, edited during the day in accordance with new emerging objectives and a change of priority. Each task should have a fixed time, the time of the beginning of implementation. The psychological method of stimulating further activity will be the marking or deletion of the completed items.
Time management helps to manage time, making life more rich, productive and comfortable.

Time Management Rules

Time can not be returned, extended or stopped, however, it can be controlled by changing the saturation of the usefulness of events occurring in a single time interval.
In addition to the use of time management techniques,Which will be discussed in more detail later, you should follow the organization of your own life. For example, observing order and structure in the workspace will save time searching for the necessary document, folder or something else. The organization of the working space - then with which you should begin to optimize your own activities. Do everything you can to ensure that the environment around you contributes to your productivity, inspired and a desire to be active. Get help devices (it's silly to use a typewriter when there is a laptop), keep order on a daily basis (it's easier than raking up blockages every six months).
We are more effective when we are in theGood condition. Therefore, it is necessary to take care of maintaining the health and working capacity of the body by providing it with the resources for restoring energy and rest. It is important to be able to stop in time, admit that you can not remake all things, even if you stop eating and sleeping. Work on exhaustion will not bring proper results, and the body then will still take away the resources spent, through illness or
. The first place should always be you, dear people and relationships, and then working moments. So set yourself a schedule and relax, drink vitamins and sleep on a comfortable pillow.
When planning your future activitiesConsider your individual characteristics and biorhythms, and do not follow the example of someone else's day. Well, here it is not necessary to "owls" appoint in the morning business that requires maximum concentration or speed, as well as larks better to unload their evening from responsible meetings. Take into account the features of your life, and especially those moments in which you are busy waiting (turn, road, late other person). At this time, which many waste, you can do some of the things, for example, read a book or an article, plan tomorrow, make a couple of calls, answer messages, tie a scarf, and so on.
Approach everything creatively - put yourselfThe goal is to find the maximum opportunities for performing new tasks. At first it will be difficult, but when it becomes a way of life, you will notice the performance of automatic actions can include even other activities (listening to an audiobook while take away or make a couple of calls, while typing a document). Make plans - for a day, for a year, for life and strive to fulfill the points. Choose the most important task for today and immediately begin its implementation. The planned deal should be implemented without delay, because the more pull with the launch, the harder it will then start and the more exacerbated by the situation.

Most often when planning we are good at ourselvesWe present how the beginning of the activity will look like, but equally important is the planning of the end. This includes such parameters as the amount of time required to perform an activity, how the final result should look, in which cases you stop the work, regardless of the result, and in which you change the direction of activity or correct the details.
The definition of significance, time and skillTo put together the necessary and sudden tasks, like Tetris figures - irreplaceable qualities of the time management, which require plasticity and readiness for changes while maintaining the general direction of movement.

Time management - how to manage everything?

The desire to catch everything is fraught with
, Depression and
, Since no one is able to make itThat's all. It's like a desire like everything - quite understandable, but really not feasible. It is required to look at the situation objectively, assessing its capabilities, needs, abilities and tasks. And choose what is most important in order to have at least this, and not scatter on all activities, thus losing the achievement of very specific things. We can do what we can. Now you need to find out what it is.
How to do everything? Time management can help with this. To begin with, it is worth removing a large part of the non-conforming reality of responsibility and refusing to resolve some issues. An important point is not to postpone for an indefinite time, namely to refuse (in the first variant you will always be under moral pressure to crush the unfulfilled task, in the second you get freedom and time). You can delete tasks from your notebook that will be resolved in one way or another without your intervention (switching off the electricity in the area, helping all the old women on the streets, finding work for friends - anything that is beyond your responsibility).
The remaining cases look at the possibilityDelegation. After all, not all actions must be performed by yourself. Author's project, a trip to the doctor, a presentation is for you, but you can ask for a friend who is going to the wrong side to pay the bill for an apartment, order the office by a colleague who conducts all the time on the Internet, and order the delivery of the gift to the courier. To yourself also leave those questions that you can delegate, but if you follow them yourself, it will develop some of your own important skills. This form will spend your time now, but will save it in the future, and maybe not only time, but also material resources (after all, if you learn how to change the wheel yourself, then in the future you will save on the services of the tow truck and car service, and also use the time , Spent on their expectation).
Discarding unnecessary, remains quite specificA list of cases that can directly affect your life and are in your area of ​​responsibility. To fulfill all the instructions of the leader, to have time to take care of your own ideas while still having a rest. All this can be done in time, if you follow the rules of the time management, which begin with the drawing up of your own schedule. This applies to both working in the office standard eight hours, and freelancers who completely dispose of their time. The first should plan their work in order to have time to fulfill it during working hours and not to drag home, second, so that the work generally takes place and is carried out regularly.
Following the basic rules of time management,It is necessary to prioritize and begin with the most important. Secondary tasks carry over for the remaining time or you can perform them during a break between important ones (for example, while you are traveling from one meeting to another it is possible to pay bills, call a friend or view the news line). Select the cases you want to perform consistently, and not being distracted by secondary tasks and passing distractions. The most effective way is to take only one thing and finish it, and then just start the second one. Otherwise, you risk not having time on several projects at the same time, increasing your emotional stress level, and also reducing efficiency due to the constant switching between different tasks.
Time management includes the ability toMinimize distractions - with employees you can chat at lunch time, with your family after work. Close social networks and digress from viewing funny videos - it's these inconspicuous small distractions that take up most of the time. Organize space in a work-friendly way: take care of good lighting, comfortable furniture, only the necessary accessories; If you work at home, then take away the cups-pillows-toys and other seductive things out of sight, create a working environment. Filter the information that comes to you. The brain does not distinguish how important and useful the information coming from outside is, it analyzes it, processes it, memorizes it, spends its reserves. Do not download your head with useless information, configure filters in social networks, subscriptions and other news resources. Having spent an hour or two on this, you will save time on viewing the entire array of information, and also keep freshness
The main rule of time management - organizeCorrectly your rest. Remember that during the working day there should be small breaks of 15-30 minutes for activity change and maintenance, and also one big lunch break. Take care of evening and weekend leisure, plan your vacation - all kinds of recreation should bring you new emotions and be built on the principle of changing activities and conditions. The person loaded with the same type of activity quickly becomes fatigued, the psychic processes are suppressed and the interest to what is happening is disappearing, so if there is no place for diversity in your work activity, then your task is to diversify leisure and pause as much as possible.
How to do everything? Time management says it's time to catch up and the technique "last day" helps to discard unimportant things. Imagine that you have only one day left to live, what would you spend it on? Approximately with such sensation it is necessary to wake up and aspire to live, doing that is necessary as much as possible quickly to be in time more. Time can not be restored, you can not buy it in a pharmacy.
Plan a list of upcoming tasks in advance,Then the next day you will see where you go next. Constantly engage in adjusting the list: deleting the made items is essentially motivating, and repositioning or adding new ones reflects the current situation.
Look for motivation and do interesting to youThings. That activity that does not carry personal interest will seem heavy, doing will take a lot of effort. Therefore, it is so important to find for yourself an external or internal motivation, your personal sense of the actions performed. A person who has his own mission and a person who simply does what they say in the same position under the same conditions will feel differently and have different effectiveness.

The principles of time management

Time management has a number of techniques andPrinciples, knowledge and use of which help to structure their time. The key point in time management is the prioritization of tasks, which in the future helps them to plan or delegate effectively. The highest priority task with the most significant negative consequences is always put on the first place, and the rest are performed only after its implementation.
To distribute goals by their significance, it is appropriateSimple enough method of ABCDEF, where the letter A is assigned to the most important cases, and then to reduce the importance. Usually, cases that fall into category D can be deleted from their list of tasks or performed in the presence of free time, internal strength and desire. In the case of the same degree of damage when several tasks are not fulfilled, they are assigned categories А1, А2 and further. And they are performed in accordance with their numbers, preserving the strict sequence and principle of performing the next task after the completion of the previous one. Here, the law of compulsory efficiency works, because to make absolutely all life is not enough, but you can do the most important thing, if you concentrate on the chosen case. Choose the most profitable, profitable, substantial and focus your efforts on this activity.
Methods of time management are diverse and engaged inThe selection of the main one is one of them. Systematize ranked cases can be done using the Eisenhower principle, in which all tasks are divided into four groups and have corresponding decision strategies that are optimal for each group. Priority tasks on which it is worthwhile to focus all your attention are urgent and important, most often the failure of such actions brings with it the most deplorable results. Important and urgent cases can, of course, be postponed for a while, but it is prudent to allocate a certain time period for them, since the permanent postponement of important cases turns them into urgent and the volume of the first category increases, which creates unnecessary workload. Urgent and not important matters - those tasks that constantly steal your time, distract from important cases. Maximally try to minimize their number or delegate to others. Unrelenting and unimportant matters can either be entrusted to someone else or not performed.
The principle of "eat a frog in the morning" was born from a parableAbout the fact that if you need to eat a frog this day, it is better to eat it in the morning and not to suffer the rest of the day, it is unlikely that something worse will happen to you. The frog in this version is compared to the presence of an unpleasant affair, the postponement of which will increase your emotional tension, bring negative consequences closer. In such cases it is necessary to act decisively and without delay - to make the necessary as early as possible and quickly. These are situations when you have to call a customer that you do not like or explain the written truths to a subordinate, or the dismissal of a person. Starting your work with getting rid of such "frogs" you provide yourself with a positive attitude and a sense of victory for the rest of the day.
The principle of time management polite "no" helpsSave a lot of time. Practice refusing requests that are not part of your priority tasks or job responsibilities. Be tactful, refuse not to the person, but to the proposed task. Determine for yourself, refusing what unproductive actions, you can save a lot of time. This can be permanent smoke breaks and coffee with colleagues, a discussion of the latest gossip and news, telephone conversations that do not involve work, the performance of someone else's work. At home, these can be meaningless views of promotional offers, switching channels, flipping through a social tape, or doing endless requests from neighbors. Learn to refuse, respecting the person and your time.
The rule of "horses and carts" about finding harmonyBetween the need to perform and the ability to rest, which can be adjusted constantly monitoring the list of necessary tasks. Perhaps, some of your usual and even automatic actions are no longer relevant or formal, and some activities with the passage of time received a more convenient form of implementation (personal meeting at the other end of the city can be replaced by Skype, sending individual letters - mailing). Constantly watching such changes, you can not only load the "cart" with new duties, but also get rid of old and unnecessary ones so as not to overload yourself to a state in which it is impossible to move.
The principle of time management "eating an elephant"A conditional name for situations where a global task is to be solved. Most often these goals are stretched in time and are not solved in one month, they require a constant investment of energy, and the results that will please their availability will not appear soon. For such large "elephants" it is appropriate to divide them into subtasks ("pieces that you can eat at a time"). Plan the big deal in several stages, having its logical conclusion, so the apparent completion of one will stimulate the next one. Convenient principle is not only for large, but also for long-term projects. Tasks should be divided from the greater to the smaller, until the principle becomes clear and transparent, and the tasks themselves will not cease to cause a stupor by their enormity.
The principle of "Swiss cheese" in something similar to"Eating an elephant", the difference is that "the elephant is eaten" after all in a certain sequence, which has its own logic and necessity, whereas in "eating cheese" you can move chaotically and start or continue from the place that you Now most convenient or easily accessible.
The application of these methods is quite effectiveIn itself, but it may require creative adaptation from you, since for one situation it may be necessary to use several techniques, and it is also necessary to distinguish which methods are most effective for solving what problems.

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