Transactional analysis is an expedienta psychological model designed to display and analyze the behavioral functioning of a person, manifested individually and in a group. Such a model encompasses philosophy, concept and ways that promote people's understanding of themselves, personal characteristics of interaction with the environment.
became a pivotal starting point for the formation ofthis concept. The author of the concept is E. Bern. At the same time, transactional analysis as a psychological model has acquired a much more large-scale character. Its specificity consists in a simple presentation in an accessible language. Its fundamental principles are absolutely elementary and generally accessible.
The basis of this concept is the postulate,affirming that an individual, being in certain conditions, can commit acts, relying solely on one of the three i-positions, having distinct differences.
Transactional analysis of Eric Berne is consideredrational method of understanding behavioral reactions, based on the inference that each individual can learn to think for himself, trust himself, openly express their own feelings, make independent decisions, build close contacts.
Transactional analysis of Bern
The theory of transactional analysis of Bern is simultaneously an analysis and a psycho-corrective effect. Each
at birth has the ability to developown opportunities for the benefit of the society and its person, to work productively and creatively and enjoy life. The very word "transactional analysis" in the literal translation means the analysis of interaction.
Transactional analysis of Eric Berne is based onthe ability of subjects to understand their own behavioral reactions, to separate inadequate patterns from their own personality. Since the individual has the right to choose, he has the opportunity to become independent, free from his own past, inspired stereotypes of behavior, thereby changing the established "life scenario" (fate). The difference between the described concept and the others lies in the lack of fixation of attention on individual behavioral reactions, but refers to the more significant and long-lasting forms and consequences of behavior.
Transactional analysis of communication is aimed atthe establishment of more open and true interactions between the subjects and between the internal structures of the individual. Transaction is a unit of communicative interaction, which can be a stimulus or a reaction, that is, it is directed at a person or comes from him. Analysis of the process of communication, presented in the form of a sequence of transactions, identifies the causes of problems and violations in human interactions.
According to Berne, the human personality is characterized bythe presence of three constituent parts - ego states or floors (tiers). In order to simplify understanding, he called these states (tiers): parent, adult and child. Each individual had parents or people fulfilling their role, therefore everything that the child copied and saved in himself continues to exist in his psyche all his life, gradually gradually transforming and modernizing. This will be the ego state of the "parent". Simply put, in each person there live parents who raised them in childhood, and continue to engage in their upbringing up to this day, which manifests itself in moral attitudes and moral orientations, partiality and today's behavior. The parent in the subject is responsible for his conscience and occupies the upper tier of personality, being the most fragile link. For example, in the process of alcoholic intoxication, the "parent" is disconnected first, which can manifest itself in dishonesty, immorality, often immorality of behavior.
The ego-state "adult" is responsible for the analysisreality and carrying out an assessment of opportunities. This state is a structure of the person, adequately reacting to the events taking place specifically "here and now". The ego-state "adult" perceives and transforms information received in the present, like a computer. In addition, this ego-state is also a mediator in the internal relationships of the parent and child.
Each subject was once a toddler, soechoes from childhood are found in the adult existence of the individual as the ego state of "child." This condition is characterized by being under the deterrent, permissive and provoking effect of the "parent". This is manifested in the reproduction of slightly altered children's behavioral reactions, such as guilt, shame, unreasonable fear, excessive anxiety, resentment, expectation of a miracle, fantasies, protests, childishness, carelessness, fun, laughter.
The ego-state "child" is responsible forreceptivity, emotionality, intuition, creative self-expression and inadequate behavior. That is, in every person there is a little girl or boy.
Transactional communication analysis characterizesmentally healthy and successful subject as an autonomous, harmonious and conflict-free work of all three states. General behavioral reactions are controlled by the ego state "adult".
When interpersonal conflicts, in situationswhen the "adult" loses power, as a result of which it can not regulate the relationship between the "parent" and the "child", various dead-end situations occur that lead to psychological problems, for example, bad mood, conflicts, depression, neuroses, etc.
Every state of the ego is vital,because it performs certain functions. Hence, all the disturbances in communicative interaction are related to the suppression of one state or its detection in situations that this state should not control.
Psychotherapy transactional analysis according to Berne, should"Revive" the suppressed ego state or train the actualization in cases where it is necessary for a harmonious interaction. From the standpoint of this concept, for optimal personal functioning, harmonious coexistence in the individual of all three states of the ego is necessary. The task of structural analysis is to reveal the relationship between the states of the individual, to help in the comprehension and correction of intrapersonal problems with the aim of adapting and eliminating pathology.
A detailed theory of transactionalBerne's analysis offers a number of definitions that are needed to understand what is happening during communicative interaction between people, namely, play, stroking, extortion, early decisions and bans, a life scenario.
Fixed and unconscious behavioralThe pattern in which an individual seeks to avoid a full contact (proximity) through manipulative behavior is called a game. For example, phrases like "look what you did to me", "if it were not for you."
The games of transactional analysis are the result of one of one series of additional hidden transactions with a distinct concrete and predictable outcome that is necessary for one of the players.
Strokes are the transactions that answerfor inducing positive feelings or negative emotions. Hence, strokes are positive, for example, "you are sympathetic to me", negative, for example, "you dislike me", conditional, for example, "you would have been more sympathetic to me, if ..." and unconditional - "I accept you just like that , as you are. "
Extortion is a way of behavioralresponse, through which individuals exercise the habitual settings, generating negative emotions, forcing others to reassure them. Extortion is usually received by the initiator of the game (that is, the manipulator) at the end.
Early decisions and prohibitions are among thethe main terms of transactional analysis, which mean information transmitted from parents to the child at the stage of childhood, from the state of "child" due to the experiences, anxieties and worries of parents. Such prohibitions can be compared with unchanged patterns of behavior. The response to this information is the child's acceptance of "early decisions". In other words, the child develops formulas of behavior that stem from "prohibitions".
The life scenario is an analogy to the "stylelife "of Adler. It covers prohibitions (parental messages), early decisions (response to the ban), games embodying early decisions, extortions that serve as an excuse for early decisions, expectations and hypotheses about the end of the "life play".
The game of transactional analysis is a complexTransactions characterized by hidden motivation, a chain of moves that contain a trap or a trick. Winning is a specific emotional mood, to which the player experiences an unconscious desire
Transactional analysis of the interaction aimshelp the individual to realize their own games, the scenario of life, i-states, and take fresh decisions related to the behavioral response and the construction of a later life, if necessary. The essence of psychocorrectional work is to release the person from the implementation of imposed behavioral programs and help him in gaining independence, spontaneity, ability to full-fledged contacts (intimate relationships).
Psychotherapy transactional analysis is mainly adopted from
. Structural analysis of the i-position involves the displayand interaction through techniques based on role-playing games, with accompanying provisions for the actual and hypothetical nature of transactions. Two main problems are singled out, namely, contamination, consisting in mixing of two different ego positions, and exceptions, which consist in strict limitation of ego states from each other.
Methods of transactional analysis are used tothe solution of various communicative problems, in violation of normal interaction within themselves and between people. This method considers four potential positions of life that determine the attitude to the environment and one's own personality:
- you're good - I'm good or you're okay - I'm fine; - you're bad - I'm good or you're not okay - I'm fine;
- you're good - I'm bad or you're okay - I'm not right;
- you are bad - I'm bad.
The first position is considered the main lifepostulate and represent those attitudes that make an individual a satisfied life. If all subjects adhered to this position, then there would be no need for transactional analysis. External circumstances compel individuals to choose other settings, which resulted in the appearance of three other positions.
The second position is guided by people,predisposed to antisocial behavior, manipulation of the environment. Such people are convinced that mutually beneficial cooperation between the actors is impossible, they consider it impossible for themselves to ask something openly from the society, and therefore they try to deceive the other individual in order to get what they want.
The third position is held by the subjects,who consider themselves unworthy. That is, they are convinced that unworthy of high earnings, a happy life, a better partner. Such individuals are constantly tormented by their own inferiority and guilt. They exist, as if by some fatal scenario. Every day these subjects yield their own vital positions to surrounding individuals, while leveling their interests.
The fourth position belongs to persons,dissatisfied with his own being, and therefore deeply unhappy. Often this position leads individuals to suicidal attempts. Berne believed that all the resources for turning into a happy person, is available to every individual.
Transactional analysis of interaction allows subjects to look at their own person, as if from outside, and to find in themselves the resources necessary for the accomplishment of changes.
In addition, the transactionalconflict analysis to predict and prevent the emergence of confrontations in interpersonal contacts. To resolve a conflict situation, in the first turn, it is necessary to be able to stay in the position of an adult. And then, you should try to bring your opponent to an adult position. For this purpose it is recommended to first give consent, and then ask a question.
Methods of transactional analysis formedBernou have several stages: the theory of ego states or structural analysis, the transactional analysis of communicative interaction and activity (based on the definition of "transaction" as the interaction of the i-positions of two individuals who entered), analysis of games and the life scenario (script analysis).
Today, the transactional analysis is quite in demandtraining which allows you to reach a qualitatively new level of professionalism. This method provides an opportunity for personal growth and professional development in a wide range of professions that are associated with intense interpersonal contacts.
The theory of transactional analysis
The selection of ego positions in the theory of transactional analysis is based on three axiomatic postulates:
- Every nowadays an adult was previously a child, who in every person is represented by the i-state "child";
- each subject with normally formedbrain structures to an adequate assessment of reality is potentially capable of (the ability to systematize from the outside the incoming data and make rational decisions refer to the i-state "adult";
- every individual had or still has today parents or persons who replaced them (the parent is in every person who takes the form of the i-state "parent").
In Bern, the "adult" is, as it were, the arbiter betweeni-states "child and parent". The adult decides by analyzing the information, which behavioral responses best match the specific circumstances, which patterns should be discarded, and which, on the contrary, should be included.
One i-state is "contaminated" by another i-state.
Transactional analysis of examples, the individual confusesparental rules for the i-state of the adult "here-and-now reality" (thus, the adult "I" became contaminated with the ego state "parent"), when beliefs are taken as facts (that is, the adult ego is polluted by the ego state of the "child" ).
By observing the verbal andnon-verbal components of behavior can be diagnosed with ego positions in the individual. Transactions are verbal and non-verbal interactions between people. That is, the transaction is the exchange of influences between the i-states of the talking subjects. Such impacts are unconditional and conditional, negative and positive. In addition, transactions are parallel, hidden and intersecting.
Parallel transactions are called transactions in whicha message coming from one individual is directly complemented by the response of the other (question-answer). Such interactions can not produce conflicts and can last indefinitely (the first law of communication).
Cross-border transactions are characterized byability to produce conflicts. In such cases, the response is given an unexpected response, that is, the ego state is activated not. For example, the husband on the question "where are my keys" gets a response from his wife "take it where he put it." In other words, the message from the adult is given to the parent's response. Such cross-transactions can begin with mutual reproaches, tiny replicas, and end with quarrels.
The purpose of the transactional analysis is to find out which ego state sent the communicative message and what ego state received this message.
Transactional analysis of the conflict istransformation of ordinary transactions into extraordinary transactions, coinciding with a concrete situation. In other words, when the situation requires the joint work of labor, the two children are not in a position to agree, and therefore, to interact productively. For such situations, I need an "adult" state. Transactions are parallel uncommon, that is, parallel, when the vectors of sending and responding coincide, and intersecting, that is, ordinary, when these vectors intersect, resulting in confrontation (the second law of communication). In the process of analyzing transactions, it is not enough just to establish the fact of intersection of vectors. We still need to determine which personality component suddenly activated and destroyed the communicative interaction. Transactional analysis is an example of a participant in a transaction to call an adult ego state to his adult "I" reacting with a child's i-position, then it is necessary to postpone the solution of the situation until the vectors match the state in which further transactions may become parallel.
Hidden transactions cover more than twoi-states, since the information in them is camouflaged as a socially acceptable message, but the response is expected from the side of the hidden message. Therefore, hidden transactions contain implicit messages, through which you can covertly affect people (people do not realize that they are affected).
Modern transactional analysis ispersonal change as a model of solutions. The foundation of all therapy for the modern concept of transactional analysis is a belief based on a change in such early decisions.
In the modern direction of the described methodthe therapist and the client are jointly responsible for the result of the objectives of the contract, which are aimed at achieving an exit from the scenario, as well as ensuring autonomy.
Modern transactional analysis is focused onpersonal change. This is his main goal, and understanding of personal problems is not considered as a result of therapy. On the contrary, their awareness is an instrument aimed at changing the personality. The very modification involves the decision to transform, and then comes an active process for its implementation.
Modern transactional analysis training includestheory of personality, child development and communications, analysis of complex structures and organizations. It is, in practical application, a system of corrective action on individuals, on married couples, families and other groups.