Psychology of Personality

Types of character accentuation by Leonhard, according to Licko

Types of character accentuation are multipleTypes of characters, in which individual traits have passed into a pathological state. Some accentuated personality traits are often compensated to a large extent, but in distressed or critical situations an accentuated personality may exhibit violations of adequate behavior. The accentuation of character (this term originates from the Latin (accentus), which means underlining) - is expressed in the form of "weak spots" in the psyche of the individual and is characterized by selective vulnerability to certain influences with increased stability to other influences.
The concept of "accentuation" for the entire time itexistence was represented in the development of several typologies. The first of these was developed by Karl Leonhard in 1968. The following classification became more widely known in 1977, which was developed by Andrei Evgenievich Lichko, based on the classification
P. B. Gannushkin, executed in 1933.
Types of character accentuation can directly manifest themselves and can be hidden and revealed only in emergency situations, when behavior
becomes the most natural.
Personality of any type of character accentuation is moresensitive and supple to the influences of the environment and, therefore, have a great propensity to violate the psyche than other individuals. If any problematic, anxious situation becomes too difficult to experience by an accentuated person, then the behavior of such an individual immediately changes dramatically and in
dominated by accentuated features.
The theory of accentuation of the character of Leonhard receiveddue attention, because it proved its usefulness. Only the specificity of this theory and the questionnaire attached to it on establishing the type of accentuation of character was that they were limited to the age of the subjects. The questionnaire was calculated only on the character of adults. That is, children or even teenagers are not able to answer a number of questions, because they do not have the necessary life experience and have not been in such situations to answer the questions posed. Consequently, this questionnaire could not truthfully determine the character accentuation available to the individual.
Understanding the need to define typeaccentuation of character in adolescents, psychiatrist Andrei Lichko engaged in this. Lichko modified the questionnaire of Leonhard. He rewrote the descriptions to the types of character accentuation, changed some type names and introduced new ones.
Description of types of character accentuation Lickoexpanded, guided by information on the expression of accentuation in children and adolescents and changes in manifestations as the formation of the personality and its maturation. Thus, he created a questionnaire on the types of accentuations of the nature of adolescents.
A. Lichko argued that it would be more appropriate to study the types of accentuations of the character of adolescents, proceeding from the fact that most accentuations are formed and manifested precisely in this age period.
To better understand the types of character accentuationexamples, you need to bring from familiar episodes and people. Most people know the most popular cartoon characters or characters from fairy tales, they are specially portrayed as too emotional, active or on the contrary passive. But the point is that it is this expression of the extreme variants of the norms of character that attracts one to him, that person is interested in, somebody gets sympathetic towards her, and someone simply waits for what will happen to her next. In life, you can meet exactly the same "heroes", only in other circumstances.
Types of character accentuation examples. Alice from the fairy tale "Alice in Wonderland" isa representative of the cycloid type of character accentuation, she had alternations of high and low activity, mood swings; Carlson is a vivid example of a demonstrative type of character accentuation, he likes to boast, possesses
, he is characterized by the strangeness of behavior and the desire to be in the center of attention.
The jamming type of character accentuation is peculiar to super-heroes who are in a state of constant struggle.
A hyperactive type of character accentuation is observed in Masha (the cartoon "Masha and the Bear"), she is direct, active, undisciplined and noisy.

Types of character accentuation by Leonhard

Karl Leonhard was the founder of the term "accentuation" in
. His theory of accentuated personalitiesBased on the idea of ​​the presence of the main, expressive and complementary personality traits. The main features, as usual, are much smaller, but they are very expressive and represent the whole personality. They are the core of the personality and are crucial in its development of adaptation and mental health. A very strong expression of the basic personality traits is repulsed by an entire person, and under distressed or unfavorable circumstances they can become a destructive factor for the individual.
K. Leonhard believed that the accentuated personality traits, first of all, can be observed when
The accentuation of personality is determined by the style of communication. Leonhard created a concept in which he described the main types of character accentuations. It is important to remember that characterization of character accentuation by Leonhard describes only the types of behavior of adults. Carl Leonhard described twelve types of accentuation. All of them have different localization according to their origin.
, as natural formation, the following types were assigned: hypertensive, affective-labile, dysthymic, affective-exalted, anxious, emotive.
As socially conditioned education - a character he attributed the following types: demonstrative, stuck, pedantic, excitable.
The types of the personal level were distinguished as follows: extraverted, introverted.
The concepts of introversion and extraversion used by Leonhard are closest to Jung's ideas.
A demonstrative type of character accentuation hasthe following defining features: demonstrativeness and artistic behavior, vigor, mobility, affectiveness of feelings and emotions, the ability to quickly establish contacts in communication. Man is inclined to fantasy, pretense and posturing. He is able to quickly dislodge unpleasant memories, it can very easily forget what hinders him or what he does not want to remember. She knows how to lie, looking straight into her eyes and making an innocent face. It is often believed to him, how such a person himself believes in what he says, and to force others into believing it for him for two minutes. He does not realize his lies and can deceive without remorse. He often lies to add value to his person, to embellish some aspects of his personality. He longs for attention, even if they say badly about him, it makes him happy, because they speak about him. The demonstrative person very easily adapts to people and is inclined to intrigues. Often people do not believe that such a person has deceived them, because he is very skillful, hides his true intentions.
A pedantic type of character accentuation is notedinertia and rigidity of the processes of the psyche. Pedantic personalities are hard and long surviving traumatic events in their psyche. They can rarely be seen stuck in
, but any violations of order do not pass by theirattention. Personality with pedantic accentuation is always punctual, accurate, clean and scrupulous, similar qualities they value in others. A pedantic person is quite diligent, believes that it is better to spend more time at work, but to do it qualitatively and accurately. A pedantic personality follows the rule "Measure seven times - cut once". This type is inclined to formalism and doubts about the correctness of any task. The jamming type of character accentuation, which is also called affectively stagnant, tends to delay
. He "gets stuck" on the feelings that gripped him,thoughts, because of this he is too touchy, even vindictive. The possessor of these characteristics tends to drag out conflicts. In his behavior with respect to others, he is very suspicious and vindictive. In achieving personal goals, he is very persistent.

An excitable type of character accentuation is expressed inweak control, inadequate controllability of one's own drives and motives. Excitable persons are characterized by increased impulsiveness and slowness of mental processes. This type is marked by anger, intolerance and a tendency to conflict. It is very difficult for such individuals to contact other people. People of such a warehouse do not think about the future, they live one real day, they do not go to school at all and any work is very hard. Increased impulsiveness can often lead to bad consequences, both for the most excitable person, and for his associates. The person of an excitable warehouse chooses his circle of communication very carefully, surrounding himself with the weakest to guide them.
Hypertimic type of character accentuationdiffers from others with increased activity, elevated mood, pronounced gestures and facial expressions, high communication skills with a constant desire to deviate from the conversation. The hypertensive person is very mobile, inclined to leadership, sociable, there are many everywhere. It is a person-holiday, in whatever company it gets, everywhere will make a lot of noise and will be the focus of attention. Hypertensive people are very rarely sick, they have a high vitality, a healthy sleep and a good appetite. They have a high self-esteem, sometimes they are excessively light-minded about their duties, any framework or monotonous activity is very difficult for them to endure.
Dysthymic type of character accentuationis characterized by seriousness, sluggishness, depression of mood and weakness of volitional processes. Such individuals are characterized by pessimistic views on the future,
. The contact is reluctant, laconic. They look more sullen, slowed down. Dysthymic personalities have a keen sense of justice and are very conscientious.
Affective-labile type of character accentuation is noted in people who have a constant change of hyperthymic and dysthymic types of accentuation, sometimes it happens for no reason.
Exalted type of character accentuationcharacterized by a high intensity of the rate of growth of reactions, their intensity. All reactions are accompanied by a rapid expression. If the exalted man was shocked by the joyful news, he would come to incredible delight, if sad news, he would fall into despair. These people have an increased tendency to altruism. They are very attached to close people, appreciate their friends. Always happy if their loved ones are lucky. Are prone to
. Can come in unimaginable delight from contemplation of works of art, nature.
An alarming type of character accentuation is manifested inlowered mood, fearfulness, self-doubt. Such personalities are difficult to contact, very touchy. They have a pronounced sense of duty, responsibility, they set themselves high moral and ethical requirements. Their behavior is timid, they can not stand up for themselves, are submissive and easily accept someone else's opinion.
Emotional type of character accentuation is differentsupersensitivity, deep and strong experience of emotions. This type is similar to the exalted, but its manifestations are not so violent. This type is characterized by high emotionality, a tendency to empathy, responsiveness, impressionability and kindheartedness. Such individuals rarely enter into conflicts, all insults are held inside. They have a sharp sense of duty.
Extraverted type of character accentuationpeculiar to people with an orientation to everything that happens outside and all reactions are also directed to external stimuli. Extraverted personalities are characterized by the impulsiveness of actions, the search for new sensations, high communication skills. They are very prone to someone else's influence, and their own judgments do not have the necessary resilience.
Introverted type of character accentuationis expressed in the fact that people live in a greater degree of representation, rather than sensations or perceptions. External events do not particularly affect the introverted, but he can think a lot about these events. Such a person lives in a fictional world with fantasy ideas. Such individuals put forward many ideas on the topic of religion, politics, problems of philosophy. They are not sociable, try to keep distance, communicate only when necessary, like peace and loneliness. They do not like to talk about themselves, they keep all their feelings and feelings to themselves. Slow and indecisive.

Types of character accentuation by Licko

Characteristics of types of character accentuation according to Lichko reveals the types of behavior of adolescents.
Accentuations, expressed in adolescentage, form the character and in the future can change a little, but still the most striking features of a certain type of accentuation remain in the person for life.
The hypertensive type of character accentuation is expressed in the high sociability of the person, her mobility, independence, positive mood, which can change dramatically
if a person becomes discontented behaviorothers, or by their behavior. In stressful situations such individuals can long remain cheerful and optimistic. Often such people make acquaintances, because of which they fall into bad companies, which in their case can lead to antisocial behavior.
Cycloid type of character accentuationcharacterized by a cyclical mood. The hypertensive phase alternates with the depressive phase. In the presence of a hypertensive phase, a person does not tolerate monotony and monotony, painstaking work. He starts new, unintelligible acquaintances. This is replaced by a depressive phase, appears
, the sensitivity is aggravated. Under the influence of such depressive sensations a person can find himself under threat
The labile type of character accentuation is manifested inrapid mood swings and the entire emotional state. Even when there are no obvious reasons for great joy or strong sadness, a person switches between these powerful emotions, changing all his state. Such experiences are very profound, a person may lose his capacity for work.
The asthenoneurotic type of character accentuation is expressed in the propensity of the individual to
. Such a person is often irritable, constantlycomplains about his condition, quickly gets tired. Irritation can be so strong that they can shout at someone for no reason, and then repent of it. Their
depends on the mood and the influx of hypochondria. If the state of health is good, then the person feels more self-confident.
A sensitive type of character accentuation is expressed in a high
, fearfulness, isolation. Sensitive personalities find it difficult to establish new contacts, but with those people who are well known, they behave cheerfully and at ease. Often because of their feelings of inferiority, they have hypercompensation. For example, if a person was previously too shy, then when he is older, he begins to behave too liberated.
The psychasthenic type of character accentuation is manifested in a person's inclination to obsessive states, in childhood they are subject to various
and phobias. Characterized by a disturbing
arising on the background of uncertainty anduncertainty about their future. Are inclined to introspection. They are always accompanied by some rituals, the same type of obsessive movements, because of this they feel much calmer.
The schizoid type of character accentuation is manifested incontradictory feelings, thoughts and emotions. The schizoid combines: isolation and talkativeness, coldness and sensitivity, inactivity and purposefulness, antipathy and attachment, and so on. The most striking features of this type are the low need for communication and avoidance of others. Not the ability to empathy and the manifestation of attention are perceived as the coldness of man. Such people will quickly share something intimate with a stranger, than with a loved one.
The epileptoid type of character accentuation is manifested in
- angry-angry condition. In this condition
, irritability and anger of a personaccumulates and after a while splashes outward with prolonged outbursts of anger. Epileptoid type of accentuation is characterized by inertia in various aspects of life activity - emotional sphere, movements, vital values ​​and rules. Often such people are very jealous, more
groundless. Try to live today's real day and what they have, do not like to make plans, fantasize or dream.
is given to the epileptoid type of personality very hard.
The hysterical type of character accentuationcharacterized by increased egocentrism, a thirst for love, universal acceptance and attention. Their behavior is demonstrative and mock, in order to get attention. It will be better for them if they are hated or negatively treated, than if they were treated with indifference or neutrality. Any activity in their favor they approve. For hysteroid personalities, the most terrible thing is the possibility of being unnoticed. Another important feature of this type of accentuation is suggestibility, aimed at emphasizing virtues or admiration.
The unstable type of character accentuationmanifests itself in the impossibility of observing socially acceptable forms of behavior. Since childhood, they have been reluctant to learn, it is difficult for them to concentrate on teaching, perform tasks or obey the elders. Becoming older, unstable individuals begin to experience difficulties in establishing relationships, especially difficulties in the romantic relationship. It is difficult for them to establish deep emotional ties. They live in the present, one day without plans for the future and any desires or aspirations.
The conformal type of character accentuation is expressed inthe desire to mingle with others, not to differ. They easily, without hesitation, take someone else's point of view, are guided by common goals, adjust their desires to the wishes of others, not thinking about personal needs. Very quickly become attached to a close environment and try not to differ from others, if there are common hobbies, interests or ideas, they also immediately pick them up. In their professional life they are not initiative, try to do their work without showing activity.
In addition to the described types of accentuation of the character Lichkoadditionally allocates mixed accentuations, since accentuation in its pure form is not observed so often. Separate accentuations, which most expressive are interconnected, and others can not be simultaneously attributed to one person.

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