Vandalism is a specific state of mindSubject, pushing it to destroy, desecration of objects of culture, works of art and damage to other objects of social significance. The concept of vandalism has a negative significance in society and is one of the forms of deviant behavioral response. The problem of this phenomenon lies in the senselessness of actions aimed at exterminating the objects of the public domain, the destruction of historical monuments, the desecration of houses or other objects of social infrastructure, property damage. Specifically, such actions can be detected in the application of various inscriptions (often obscene) on fences and facades of buildings, in the smudging of walls of structures in public places, disfigurement of public transport, elevators, damage to attractions, garbage cans.
Vandalism and hooliganism
The concept of vandalism occurred in the East GermanTribe of vandals, who in the summer of 455 plundered Rome. The invaders removed from the "eternal city" a huge number of works of art and jewelry, and, besides, they took many prisoners to obtain ransom. This word has a historical interpretation and means robbery or barbarism.
Although it is believed that the vandals, mainly,Robbed and exported values, rather than destroyed and spoiled them, still they became established glory of uncultured and backward "barbarians." Perhaps this is due to the ruthless persecution of the Catholic clergy and the destruction of churches in the Kingdom of Vandals, which was in northern Africa.
In the modern sense, the termBecame applicable during the French Revolution. Abbot A. Gregoire in 1794 made information about the vandalism, destruction, defilements of the public domain and about the means that can prevent them. He called for the strictest elimination of the destruction of art objects. In this case, Gregoire under this term, above all, implied the actions of the army of the "newly formed" French Republic.
The nineteenth century firmly established this concept, which denoted the senseless destruction or spoilage of works of art, objects of architecture, objects of culture.
Examples of vandalism: Fascist (meaningless destruction of palaces during the Second World War), destruction on the basis of religious fanaticism (destruction of Buddha statues). Also, irresponsible tourism often expose the cultural heritage to the threat of destruction. People, most often face such a variation of senseless damage, like vandalism in the entrance.
This phenomenon in the modern world is widelyIs common. Today's culturally developed world is not able to find an "antidote" directed against the demonstrative destruction by fanatical savages of cultural and historical values. In most of the current states, there is a criminal liability for these actions.
Hooliganism is called gross violationPublic law and order, obvious disrespect for generally accepted social norms. West, the term "hooliganism", mainly applies in relation to the fans hooligan during the competition of your favorite sports team. In the countries of the former union, the concept described here, as a rule, means an offense or a crime.
One of the frequent offensesIs hooliganism, which often provokes the commission of other, more serious criminal acts. The main object of hooliganism is the public order. Among the additional facilities are allocated health
, Honor and personal dignity. The object of vandalism is the public legal order.
Under hooliganism, it is customary to understand offenses,They reveal disrespect for other elements of the social system. And adult and adolescent vandalism is one of many manifestations of hooliganism, expressed in the destruction of cultural monuments and the desecration of spiritual values.
Vandalism of youth and adults is directed, as a rule, to the destruction of property, and not to members of society.
To differentiate between the concepts of "vandalism" and"Hooliganism", it is necessary to understand that the first is directed at the result, expressed in the damage to property, therefore it is carried out imperceptibly, the second is indicative.
We can distinguish the following specific differences between the concepts described:
- hooliganism is a general term, vandalism is its variety;
- vandalism as a historical phenomenon is known for a long time, and the concept of hooliganism as a concept first emerged in the 18th century;
- Wrongful acts of vandals are aimed at damage to objects, and hooligans are committed to causing harm to citizens;
- hooliganism is characterized by an open, demonstrative focus, and vandalism presupposes the implementation of the crime in secret, "quietly."
Criminal liability for vandalism, as well as for hooliganism in most states comes from the age of fourteen, and for individual offenses - from sixteen.
Types of vandalism
There are many different classifications. Below are the most popular of them.
On objects of desecration, it is classified into:
- graffiti and its varieties of tagging and bombing (if the pictures are characterized by antisocial, immoral content);
- desecration of graves;
- Burning of books;
- Burning of churches;
- Destruction or damage to monuments of culture, paintings.
Graffiti is called any inscription, image,All kinds of drawings on the facades of buildings, fences or other surfaces applied with the help of paint, ink or scratched. To this type of street "art" include any variations in the imposition of images, paintings, inscriptions on various surfaces.
Tegging is a kind of graffiti, consisting in the rapid drawing of the author's signature on various surfaces, mainly in public places.
Bombing is also considered a variety of graffiti andIs the use when drawing drawings or signatures on the surface of fairly simple fonts or less frequently characters consisting, as a rule, of the same color used for the fill, and the other for the outline. Today, there is a lot of controversy on the topic: "graffiti art or vandalism." Some sociologists consider "street art", above all, the desire for artistic self-affirmation. Since most young adherents of street "art" can not otherwise express themselves, declare themselves, make their own creativity public. Other scientists are convinced that individuals engaged in useless painting of surfaces simply do not feel themselves to be an element of the society belonging to this society. They express their own protest through an act of vandalism.
Thus, modern society has noA clear answer to the question: "Graffiti art or vandalism." Anyway, most researchers consider street art the simplest means for self-expression, self-affirmation. Various variations of graffiti are used today in commercials, in clips, computer games.
Motives and causes of vandalism manifested inPainting walls, not sufficiently studied. However, it was found that adolescent vandalism can arise as a result of deviations in emotional relationships in the family, underdevelopment of positive inclinations and interests, their alienation from the family, social activity and collective relations, lack of the formation of a life sense and goals, the influence of models of different subcultures on the development of negative Ideological patterns and stereotypes of behavior, a violation in the processes of socialization.
To the most frequent modern forms of vandalismCarry various disruptions in populated areas, spoil mailboxes, seats in transport, hit the lawns, smash windows, street lamps, light bulbs, surveillance cameras, paint the walls of buildings, garages, houses, paint smudges, vandalism in the entrance,
Classification of vandalism by E.Evmenova:
- performed with respect to small architectural forms (various stalls);
- vandalism of music-sports fans;
- destructive actions, committed from revenge;
- destruction of monuments and other objects of culture;
- electronic computational vandalism;
- desecration of graves.
The listed species can hardly be calledClassification, since this list is made without attempts to identify a certain feature that could become the basis for systematization. So, for example, selfish, ideological and vandalism of young people and adults, committed out of revenge, stand out on the grounds that provoked such actions. A desecration of graves, ecological, vandalism of monuments and other objects of culture can be classified according to the encroachments.
Vandalism of sports and music fans - by subjects, electronic-computing - by means and specific consequences.
A number of authors propose to classify byCriminological content of some of its manifestations, which consists of the prevailing motives and social relationships in the sphere of which an offense occurs. Therefore, they distinguish six varieties of vandalism, namely, actions of an outrageous nature, domestic, criminal, terrorist, ideological and state-bureaucratic.
Outrageous is peculiar, mainly,Minors or persons who have barely reached the age of eighteen. They commit such acts from hooligan motives, for the sake of self-affirmation, as a kind of unconscious protest against the behavioral norms accepted in society, the rules of decency and decency. This form includes the desecration of shrines and graves, inscriptions of obscene content, damage to elevators, the shattering of window panes in various institutions. The most dangerous are the fanaticism of those who are members of the Satanist sect.
The described form of vandalism is considered the mostCommon. Particular attention should be paid to its variation, namely the actions performed by sports fans, especially football fans. They often provoke mass riots in stadiums, squares and streets, accompanied by fights and large-scale pogroms.
On the basis of hostility-unfavorableRelationships in the family, deviations in the interaction between neighbors, members of various social collectives (for example, labor) there is a problem of vandalism of household orientation. In this case
With the identity of the victim shifted to property,Which is in his possession. More often this type of deeds is committed under the influence of alcohol: the riot unconsciously breaks off his aggression on objects, thereby avoiding committing crimes against a person of a more serious nature.
Examples of household vandalism: As a result of a quarrel with his father during the joint drinking alcohol-containing liquids, a certain citizen N. in anger poured a bottle of petrol on the floor of their common living space and carried out arson. As a result, the TV, the door, part of the furniture and clothes were burnt. The son and father managed to prevent the spread of the fire.
When damage or destruction of objectsIs committed with the aim of intimidating merchants by racketeering, for the sake of self-interest, concealment of traces of serious criminal acts, in the course of carrying out other illegal activities, one can speak of criminal vandalism.
Criminal vandalism depends on the degree of damage caused.
Ideological vandalism is aVarious actions directed against the symbols of the state, on the monuments to the heroes of the Great Patriotic War and the graves of prominent political figures. Also in this category can be attributed and encroachments on property due to "class enmity." Often an ideological crime is accompanied by terrorist acts.
Aggression, in particular in the form of destructive attack, destructive attack, was committed earlier and to this day is being led by religious fanatics.
Vandalism in the cemetery
Vandals defeated the eternal city in 455 year. Since then, more than a thousand years have passed, but modern vandals have surpassed even the representatives of the East German tribe. Today they destroy not only cultural and architectural monuments, buildings, transport, but also places where the human body finds its last refuge, places where people come to remember the dead, remember them, "talk" with them.
Unfortunately, cemetery vandalism inThe modern world is a fairly common phenomenon. Often it occurs as a result of excessive use of various "hot" liquids. But it is more terrible when the causes of vandalism in cemeteries lie in the hatred of ethnic minorities, in national or religious intolerance, or are caused by a sense of easy gain due to a banal lucre.
Often, criminals, plundering orDesecrating the grave, there are young people, often even teenagers. They smash gravestones, destroy monuments, apply swastikas or other inscriptions, often obscene, to gravestones. Jewish cemeteries suffer most from their invasions.
The roots of cemetery vandalism are hiddenReally deep. What are the places of burial for the relatives of the deceased ?! First of all, for a close relative, the graves of the deceased are spiritual values. This is what connects them with the departed relatives. The graves hold in themselves dear memories of individuals. Therefore, most researchers of this phenomenon are convinced that the true goal of the cemetery vandals is precisely these values. They are aimed at destroying the spiritual significance of cemeteries. First of all, in such behavior is a protest of social order, a challenge to the foundations.
Cemetery vandalism is not only hooliganism, it is the desire to destroy, to spit on these values, often, the desire to cause pain, if not a physical plane, then at least spiritual.
Cemetery vandalism punishment provides forA similar punishment, as for other types of this behavior, if the vandals did not move ideological, religious or racial hostility. In these cases, the punishment will be more serious.