Psychology of communication

Verbal communication - types, features

Verbal communication is communicative mutuallyDirected action, which takes place between one individual, several subjects or more, which assumes the transmission of information of various directions and its reception. In verbal communicative interaction, speech is used as a communication mechanism, which is represented by language systems and is divided into written and oral. The most important requirement for verbal communication is the clarity of pronunciation, the clarity of content, the availability of a statement of thought.
Verbal communication can cause a responsePositive or negative emotional reaction. That is why every individual simply needs to know and correctly apply the rules, norms and methods of speech interaction. For the effectiveness of communication and success in life, any person should master the art of rhetoric.

Verbal and non-verbal communication

As is known, the human
A social being. That is, the subject, can never become a person without society. Interaction of subjects with the society takes place through communication tools (communication), which is verbal and non-verbal.
Verbal and non-verbal means of communicationEnsure the communicative interaction of individuals throughout the world. Although a person's primary thought, but for her expression and understanding by other individuals, such an instrument of verbal communication as speech is needed, which convinces thought in words. After all, for an individual, a phenomenon or concept begins to exist only if it acquires a definition or a name.
The most universal means of communication between people is the language, which is the main system coding information, and an important communication tool.
With the help of words, a person makes meaningfulEvents and the meaning of phenomena, expresses one's own thoughts, feelings, attitudes and worldview. Personality, language and consciousness are inseparable. However, in this case, the absolute majority of people to a language refers to how to air, i.e. Uses it without noticing. The language quite often overtakes thoughts or does not obey them.
During the communication between peopleAt each of its stages, barriers arise that hinder the effectiveness of communication. Often on the way to mutual understanding is the use of identical words, gestures and other communication tools to identify completely different phenomena, things, objects. Such barriers appear due to socio-cultural differences, psychological and other factors. Individual differences in human needs and the system of their values ​​often do not allow us to find a common language even when discussing universal themes.
Violations of the communication processHuman interaction cause errors, misses or failures in information encryption, underestimation of ideological, professional, ideological, religious, political, age and gender differences.
In addition, for human communicationsIncredibly important are the following factors: context and subtext, style. So, for example, an unexpected familiar appeal or cheeky behavior can nullify the entire informational richness of the conversation.
However, most of the information about theCommunication is not transmitted through verbal tools, but through non-verbal means. That is, the idea of ​​the true feelings of the interlocutor and his intentions is drawn not from his speech, but from the direct observation of the details and manner of his behavior. In other words, interpersonal communication is mainly due to a whole complex of non-verbal instruments - facial expressions and gestures, symbolic communicative signs, spatial and temporal boundaries, intonational and rhythmic characteristics of speech.
As a rule, non-verbal communications areThe consequence is not a conscious manner of behavior, but a subconscious motivation. Verbal mechanisms of communication are difficult to forge, which is why they should be trusted more than verbal formulations.
Verbal and nonverbal communication in the course ofCommunication interaction of people are perceived simultaneously (simultaneously), they should be considered as a single complex. In addition, gestures without the use of speech are not always wealthy, and speech without facial expression is empty.

Types of verbal communication

To verbal communication is externalDirected speech, which in turn is divided into written and oral, and internally directed speech. Oral speech can be dialogical or monologic. Internal speech manifests itself in preparation for oral conversation, or, especially, for written speech. Written speech is immediate and delayed. Immediate speech occurs in the exchange of notes, for example, at a meeting or lecture, and deferred - when exchanging letters, when a long time may pass for an answer. Terms of communication in written speech are strictly mediated by the text. Dictation is also considered a peculiar form of verbal communication. It includes manual alphabet, which is a substitute for oral speech and serves for the interaction of deaf or blind persons between themselves and people familiar with dactylology. Signs of dactylic speech replace letters and resemble letters of a printed font.

Feedback affects the accuracy of understandingA person who perceives information, the meaning of the speaker's statements. Feedback is established only on condition that the communicator and the recipient will alternately change places. The task of the recipient is to let the communicator know how he perceived the meaning of information using his statements. It follows that dialogue speech is a successive change in the roles of the communicative interaction of the conversing, in the process of which the meaning of the speech utterance is revealed. A monologic speech, on the contrary, can last quite a while, without interrupting the replicas of other chatters. It requires preliminary preparation from the speaker. To monologic speech include lectures, reports, etc.
Important components of the communicative aspectCommunication skills are accurate, clearly express their own thoughts and listening skills. Since an unclear formulation of thoughts leads to a misinterpretation of what was said. A clumsy hearing transforms the meaning of the broadcast information.
The well-known type of interaction also applies to verbal communication: conversation, interview, debate and discussion, dispute, meeting, etc.
Conversation is called a verbal exchange of thoughts,Opinions, knowledge, information. Conversation (conversation) involves the presence of two or more participants whose task is to express their own thoughts and thoughts on a given topic in a relaxed atmosphere. The participants of the conversation can ask each other questions in order to get acquainted with the position of the interlocutor or clarify the incomprehensible moments that arose during the discussion. Conversation is especially effective when there is a need to clarify an issue or highlight the problem. Interviewing is a specially organized conversation on social, professional or scientific topics. A debate is a public discussion or dispute on socially important or scientific topics. Discussion is called a public dispute, the result of which is the clarification and correlation of different points of view, positions, search and identification of the correct opinion, finding the right solution to the contentious issue. A dispute is the process of exchanging opposing views. That is, it means every clash of positions, disagreements in beliefs and views, a kind of struggle in which each of the participants defends their own rightness.
Also verbal communication is divided into verbal
And interpersonal.
Is carried out between several individuals,The result of it is the emergence of psychological contact and a certain relationship between communicants. Verbal business communication is a complex multilateral process of developing professional contacts between people.

Features of verbal communication

The main feature of verbal communicationIt is considered that such communication is peculiar only to man. Verbal communication as an indispensable condition presupposes the mastery of the language. Due to its communicative potential, it is much richer than all types of non-verbal communication, although it is not in a position to completely replace it. Formation of verbal communications initially necessarily relies on non-verbal means of communication.
The main component of communication is words,Which were taken by themselves. Verbal interaction is considered the most universal way of thinking. Any message built with the help of a non-verbal sign system can be deciphered or translated into verbal human language. So, for example, the red light of a traffic light can be translated as "the passage is forbidden" or "stop".
The verbal aspect of communication is complexMulti-level structure and can act in different stylistic variations: dialect, spoken and literary language, etc. Successful or unsuccessful implementation of the communicative act is facilitated by all speech components or other characteristics. A person in the process of communication from a wide range of various instruments of speech interaction chooses such tools that seem most appropriate for him to formulate and express his own thoughts in a specific situation. This is called a socially significant choice. Such a process is endless in its diversity.
Words in speech communicative interaction are notAre ordinary signs, serving for the name of objects or phenomena. Verbal communication creates and forms whole verbal complexes, a system of ideas, religions, myths, characteristic of a particular society or culture.
The way a subject speaks can formThe representation of the other participant in the interaction, of who such a subject really is. This often manifests itself when the communicator plays an established social role, for example, a company manager, a school principal, a team captain, etc. Mimicry, appearance, intonation will correspond to the status of the social role of the speaker and his idea of ​​such a role.
The choice of verbal tools contributes toCreation and comprehension of some social situations. For example, a compliment does not always indicate that a person looks good, he can simply be a kind of "communicative move".
Effectiveness and effectiveness of the verbalInteraction is largely due to the level of mastering the communicator with oratory art and his personal qualitative characteristics. Today, competent knowledge of speech is considered the most important component of the professional realization of the individual.
With the help of speech, it is not just movementMessages, but also the interaction of participants in the communication process, which in a special way influence each other, direct and orient each other. In other words, they are striving to achieve a certain transformation of behavior.
Despite the fact that speech is universalTool of communicative interaction, it acquires meaning only when included in the activity. Speech must necessarily be supplemented by the use of non-speech sign systems for the effectiveness of interaction. The communicative process will be incomplete if you do not use non-verbal means.

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