Domestic violence is threats or repetitiveActs of a violent nature, produced by one individual in relation to others who are closely related to him. This problem is considered today a rather widespread and acute social phenomenon.
Types of violence in the family can be different. These include the impact of economic, physical, psychological, sexual orientation. Domestic violence can be found in absolutely all socio-ethnic strata of society. Family violence does not depend on racial and cultural aspects, social status, moral and ethical norms encountered in society, religion, material security. Also, acts of a violent nature are equally found in heterosexual relationships, and in homosexual couples.
Causes of Domestic Violence
There are many such reasons. They are caused by the combined influence of various factors. It is believed that acts of a violent nature can be determined by the socio-cultural nature of the society. They can be the result of stereotyped ideas about the essence of family relations, instilled with upbringing, which seem to be the only possible model for building relationships and reinforced by external factors. Also, ill-treatment is the result of a person's personal life experience, on the basis of which a stereotypical model of marital behavior in marriage is created.
Causes of domestic violence can come fromChildhood. For example, if a child has suffered some kind of trauma in childhood, has experienced a negative experience, then he can take out internal complexes on weak relatives. Social and personal dissatisfaction forces us to seek compensation for our condition at home, while at the same time asserting itself at the expense of close people who are unable to rebuff on their own.
Violence in the family, physical orientation, canRepeat for a single generation. For example, a child who, in childhood, was subjected to ill-treatment, can transfer this model of behavior to his family relationships in adulthood. The psychology of violence can become part of his own "I".
Domestic terror can arise fromPersonal characteristics of a person, overdeveloped dominant personality traits and character traits that were not compensated in time by adequate upbringing. Today there is no single point of view on the root cause of domestic violence. There are many theories that involve the presence of mental disorders in an individual, the influence of socio-cultural values, the impact of social organization, and so on.
Psychologists have found a link between the growth of violent behavior and the following psychological factors: weakening control over instincts, disappointment,
, Alcoholism and psychopathology. Sociologists believe that some cultural norms adopted in society, provoke acts of violent nature, for example, the patriarchal social structure of society, which favors the dominance of men.
Violence is closely related to the availability ofSocial stress in the family. So, for example, among the mass factors contributing to the increase in the level of tension in the family and leading to cruelty, distinguish: different views on the upbringing of children, intimacy, pregnancy, material problems, unemployment, the need for continued medical care. The constantly present irritation is partly due to the chronic anxiety about unresolved problems, the disparity of desires with opportunities, the mutually exclusive requirements of society.
Often, conjugal beating is associated with alcohol. There are two opinions about the impact of excessive drinking on the occurrence of violence in the family. The first opinion is based on the fact that alcohol removes any control over instincts. Second, he is an excuse. Numerous studies have shown that alcoholism and
Affect differently. It was noted that a small dose of alcohol does not increase
, But increasing the dose can cause aggression. In cases of taking drugs, increasing the dose does not lead to aggressiveness of the condition, but acts on the contrary - it disinhibits and makes a person softer. Addicts are inclined to display aggression and violence not because of drugs, but because they can not accept it.
The consequence of chronic violence, of a physical nature, is unhealthy timidity, timidity, irritability, harshness, rudeness. Such reactions are total, similarly
Will behave in all situations.
The problem of domestic violence is dangerous because it causes irreparable harm to psychological development, physical health and self-esteem of the individual.
Psychological Violence in the Family
Most often, psychological domestic violence inFamily concerns a weak half of humanity. This form of violence is the most common of all types of violence that occur in the family. Quite often, individuals, in relation to which it manifests, do not understand that they are victims.
Violence in the family - what to do? It must be remembered that psychological violence of a violent nature is now considered a crime. To its manifestations include various insults, humiliations of the person, which after a certain time will only be aggravated and strengthened.
Psychological violence is often calledEmotional. Most often, women and children are typical victims of domestic violence. However, and the weak half can act as a psychological abuser in family relationships. One of the forms of violent family action is moral intimidation and threats, which involve using vulgar words about the victim, using blackmail and threats, destroying household appliances, forcing to watch shock scenes, etc.
So, psychological family violence is calledInfluence on the thinking processes, behavior or physical state of the person without her consent, using the means of interpersonal communication. Common means of psychological influence include threats, insults and mental harassment.
Often, when the actions of a violentCharacter, the victim may not even suspect it. A person with respect to whom acts of a violent orientation are made may not understand that they are beyond the norm. The situation can also be exacerbated by the fact that in the periods between attacks of anger the "psychological rapist" shows itself as a caring, tender and loving partner.
Victims of domestic violence are often in a depressed state, they are prone to anxiety, they are often overwhelmed by thoughts of
. Persons who are victims of violence are, in the main, rather self-contained, characterized by
A typical behavior that qualifies as aPsychological violence of a violent nature is humiliation, neglect, mockery of a partner with outsiders, contempt, neglect of the partner's opinion and his work; Total control, prevention of any contact with family and friends; The imposition of views on who to be friends with, where to meet friends; Pressure on a partner, unfounded accusations, cries, deprivation of children, money or other tangible and intangible benefits; Threats, aggressive behavior, destruction of partner's things; Denial of guilt for causing harm, duplicity - in the family partner is a tyrant, and in public is a friendly, well-bred personality.
Psychological violence is quite frequentOccurring phenomenon in society. But often people living alongside the victim of this behavior do not notice the actions of a violent nature. This is due to the fact that the victims are ashamed to admit, and they are afraid of someone complaining.
If you notice the following actions in the behavior of your partner, then this is a signal to think about, and whether you are a victim of psychological terror.
Signs of domestic violence:
- the partner often falls into uncontrollable fury over and without;
- the spouse suffers from excessive suspicion, in particular, constantly suspects of treason;
- the partner is subject to mood swings, on which the joint daily life depends;
- any social interaction is prohibited without his participation;
- the partner inspires
- threatens with murder, in case you leave it.
Psychological domestic violence in the family is considered difficult to recognize. And it's even harder to prove it.
The problem of violence in the family of a psychological nature is a cunning manipulation, through which one partner convinces the other that he can not do anything and nothing.
Sexual abuse in the family
Domestic violence and its statistics appearDisappointing for researchers. According to statistics, 50% of women and 5% of men are subjected to domestic violence. Sexual violence in the family is inextricably linked with the physical. The causes of domestic violence can arise from male dissatisfaction with oneself, one's own life, an inability to cope with difficulties, etc. They try to assert themselves in this way, grow in their own eyes. Not having either the opportunity or the desire to realize oneself, such men are looking for different ways that can allow them to show their strength, subjugate themselves and prove their dominant position to the partner. A woman, without understanding it herself, can provoke a man to such an act. Its success, hardened before life's difficulties, strength of character gradually for a man become the main irritant. Next to such a woman, a weak man feels even more untenable. Therefore, in order to somehow self-affirm and prove to the woman who is the head of the family, he goes down to the actions of an unlawful nature - intimate and physical acts of a violent nature.
Sexual violence is a type of coercion thatCan be expressed in the form of imposed touches, humiliation, intimacy, coercion to sexual intercourse and sexual intercourse against the desire of the victim. Often, this violence is subjected to a weak half of humanity. For some reason in modern society it is considered that a woman should not refuse her husband in intimacy. Many women, raped by their husbands, hide this fact from others, they feel a strong sense of shame, often feel guilty for what happened. Often prove the rape of a woman by her husband is quite problematic.
Violence in the family - where to go? First of all, assistance to victims of domestic violence should be sought from specialists in family law and psychologists. You can also ask for help from close people.
Many women can be beaten for years andOther bullying. The reasons for this can be strong affection for the partner, dependence on him, fear of publicity, shame, joint children. Often, women have a fear that a man with the help of money will be able to achieve that the judge after the divorce will leave the children with him.
Physical abuse in the family
Physical violence is a directImpact on the human body. The infliction of bodily injuries, beatings, beatings, torture are types of violence in the family, physical orientation. Due to physical violence, a person's health can be harmed. The level of physical violence varies, ranging from causing minor beatings and ending with an extreme form of murder. Violence of a physical orientation, is easy enough to recognize, based on the data of medical examination.
The problem of domestic violence is characterized byGender orientation. Often domestic violence is a consequence of male domination and aggression, which in some cultures are quite common.
Many men and women perceive physicalViolence as an invariable attribute of a "normal" family life. Often, physical violence in the family over a woman occurs in fairly stable marriages that have children, that is, in this type of family relationships that are considered to be the norm. Wives who are subjected to domestic violence have excessive patience and the willingness to repeatedly forgive a partner. Such patience and forgiveness can be associated with the unwillingness to leave a child without a father, economic dependence on her husband, pity for him, fear of losing respect for society.
Violence against children in the family
Statistics show that domestic violenceChildren of different age and sex are exposed. Many studies have proven the existence of several risk factors that increase the likelihood of the product of violent acts on children. These factors include:
- age (in 67% of recorded violence, the age of children did not reach 1 year, in 80% - 3 years);
- 50% of cases of violence against children come from childhood (parents were also subjected to violence in childhood);
- home terror more often applies to children with different mental disorders, speech, with congenital defects or chronic, relapsing diseases;
- non-native children.
According to statistical data, in 77% of casesChildren suffer from parents, 11% from other relatives, 2% from people with whom there are no closely related links, for example, nannies or non-native parents.
Violence against the baby is a beating, variousBullying, humiliation, serious injury, bodily harm and mutilation to the child by parents or other adults. The following categories of violence stand out: lack of care, emotional pressure, physical and sexual violence.
Lack of care can be expressed in refusalMedical or psychological assistance to the child, expulsion from the home, cessation of feeding, allowing to skip school, absolute lack of control over the child, prohibition of participation in school activities, not providing the necessary things for schooling, etc.
Physical violence is one of the mostWidespread forms of violence against the child. It consists in the intentional infliction of physical harm on the child. It can be expressed in regular beatings, mutilation or bodily harm.
Sexual abuse of children is on the thirdPlace by frequency of occurrence. It consists in the child's inclination to have sexual intercourse with the genital, anal or oral nature. Also, to sexual violence "without touch" refers to child pornography.
Emotional abuse of children separatelyIs rare, but it is considered one of the most common forms. Usually it happens in combination with other types of domestic terror over children.
Domestic violence - help
People suffering from violent acts in theFamily, it is difficult to accept help from other people. Quite often they are simply afraid to seek help, they are embarrassed, ashamed, and therefore do not resort to specialized services. Often people who suffer from domestic tyranny do not know where to turn.
Violence in the family - where to go? If you need an immediate response, you should contact the police. However, the police will not solve family conflicts that require a cardinal position from you. First of all, the individual must himself strive to get rid of oppression. Until you decide on your own that you no longer want to be a victim, nothing will change, and no one will be able to help you.
Do not neglect communication with family and friends. Even if they are not able to help, you can get psychological support, understanding and the opportunity to speak out.
There are specialized organizations,Aimed at providing assistance to victims of terror in the family. They include crisis centers, institutions of medical and social rehabilitation, social services, etc. It is very important that the telephones of organizations able to help are always at hand. You can tell the phones to children or neighbors so that if they need to, they can ask for help.
It is in providing assistance to the injured participantsFamily relationships, with the purpose of resolving difficult circumstances, within the boundaries that will ensure the protection of life, mental and physical health, as well as physical and mental development, the formation of the personality of under-age family members is the legal, social and psychological protection from domestic violence.
Participants in family relations who have committedViolence, bear administrative, civil or criminal liability. However, before the home tyrant incurs responsibility, a lot of time will pass and a lot of mental energy will be spent.
Violence in the family - what to do? To begin with, you should apply to the police, and then to a public organization, where they will provide professional psychological help and support.
To prevent further violence,To submit a personal application to the relevant authorities, in connection with the existence of a real threat of violent acts or with the violence that is already taking place.
Prevention of domestic violence
Protection from domestic violence, legal,Psychological and social orientation, consists in preventive actions of social bodies, in the help of family members who have suffered from behavior, violent nature, in social adaptation and rehabilitation.
Prevention of domestic violence and domestic despotism includes such activities: special and general preventive measures, individual preventive activities.
General measures cover legal explanatoryWork among different social groups and all walks of life, the development of social opinion, characterized by intolerance to domestic violence, the legislative framework for the protection of violence, the proliferation of activities of various centers of assistance to victims of violence.
Special measures are to identify the social groups that are most susceptible to domestic tyranny, and the concentration of preventive efforts in this direction.
Individual detection is aimed at direct detection, suppression of domestic terror and rehabilitation of the injured individuals from such violence.
Under the prevention of domestic tyranny are understoodA set of social measures, psychological and pedagogical influences, legal measures aimed at preventing, detecting and eliminating the consequences of violent behavior in a family union.
The problem of domestic terror and domestic violence, inDepending on the effectiveness and effectiveness of legal means, can not be resolved only with their help. These funds are aimed, first of all, at containing such manifestations caused by cruelty and aggressiveness, lack of adequate upbringing and culture, anger that is a consequence of ill-being.