Voluntarism is a philosophical position,Developed as an abstract philosophy back in antiquity. Voluntarism was born not out of nowhere, it assumes a very old idea of an active will, when the subject has the will to self-esteem, to moralism, to rationality, to pragmatism. In this way, the individual must possess willful manifestations, in order to be himself and the master of life.
The position about this will was born on the basis ofReligion, it can be traced in the epistles of the ancestor of the Christian philosophy of the Apostle Paul. If we analyze these epistles philosophically and recall the arguments of the apostle about the difference between physical circumcision and spiritual circumcision, the need for spiritual circumcision, we will see that spiritual circumcision is a willful self-coercion and a very clear target orientation: "I see the goal and force myself to correspond to it." What the apostle Paul recommended was addressed to Christianity: "a man must be forced to be a Christian." So with the change of epochs the principle remained unchanged: a person must force himself to be European, serve the state, his own corporation, himself, force himself to be a pragmatic subject and act. Thus, voluntarism appears as a kind of struggle of the individual with various circumstances.
What is voluntarism?
The concept of voluntarism comes from the LatinVoluntas - will, and denotes a philosophical direction that gives divine, human or natural will a dominant role in the development of the world, as well as all its components.
The very notion of voluntarism arose relativelyRecently, although its principles have the oldest roots, and the development of this understanding of the will as the basic component of the world was already in the works of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche.
Voluntarism, what is it? Voluntarism in simple words means understanding that will is the main force of movement in life. We must declare our position and strictly observe this position, force ourselves to be free, and this is sometimes frightening, especially in countries that have only recently begun to emerge from totalitarian conditions. And by becoming free, the individual must protect his personal freedom and make demands to others so that they respect the commitments they have made and give the opportunity to others to be themselves. Thus, voluntarism in simple words is man's will as the main component of life, a constant struggle for his aspirations.
Voluntarism, as a direction in psychology and philosophy, opposes rationalism as yet another philosophical idealistic system, challenging the primary significance of reason.
Voluntarism, revealed in the works of Schopenhauer,Puts the will above all other phenomena in the mental life of man, the main motivational component of his activity, makes the will a supernatural force. The meaning of the word voluntarism determines not only the human quality, as is customary in psychology today, but also the worldwide principle. At the same time voluntarism as a special vision of the will leaked into psychological science, from this position many psychologists of the 19th and 20th centuries studied the will. However, many scientists did not agree with this approach, asserting the need for causal relationships in the strong-willed manifestations of man. Spinoza, for example, considered mandatory reasons for
Human being, and also included volitional manifestationsMan only to mental manifestations, but not to bodily. Kant argued that the will to the same extent can be free and not free. Leibniz spoke of freedom in the will only through a connection with rational, rational actions, opposing their actions on the basis of passions. According to Hegel, freedom and will are identical concepts and the concept of voluntarism in simple words means "freedom." But the primary importance for the development of voluntarism as a philosophical trend was the works of Schopenhauer.
In the time of Schopenhauer, the dominantAccording to Hegel attached to reason, knowledge was considered the basic category in the world order. However, the German philosopher questioned such a vision and put forward the idea of the significance of strong-willed manifestations of man as the most significant force in the life not only of man, but also of animals and plants. The world is irrational, not as predictable as it seems to man, and knowledge is intuitive, and it is the willful manifestations of man that drive everyone. The will is familiar to everyone on the basis of experience, as an extremely simple phenomenon, strong-willed manifestations of a person do not require any mental constructs.
Schopenhauer considered volitional manifestationsMan as a force, aimless movement without beginning, without end. The will has separate manifestations, they can conflict with each other. Counteraction to the outside and inside of man is the expression of this struggle between individual volitional objectifications. The German philosopher is sure that we act often not as rational beings, but under the influence of
, Passions, dark impulses, which we can not bring to the level
And only the second stage in the world order takesKnowledge that is characteristic of man. The knowledge of the world is available in its separate acts of grasping reality, and its expression is possible only through art.
Schopenhauer sees only as an instrumentWill, it serves specific practical purposes. Intellect is able to cover only the connections between objects, has no ability to know them in depth, says the German philosopher. The mind has no regulative and motivational functions.
The main task, which Schopenhauer puts himself -It is to understand a living person. In contrast to the rationalists approach, Schopenhauer's person is characterized by a whole range of feelings. In his understanding, a man is afraid of suffering, disease, death, eternally hungry for something, dissatisfied with himself. The German philosopher believed that it was man who made the world meaningful. Schopenhauer does not distinguish the world apart from the person taken. The world of Schopenhauer is the world of man.
In the work on the world's will, the German philosopher tries to show that many of the man's claims, his views give
. Symptoms of megalomania of Schopenhauer are manifested in three spheres: cosmological, biological, psychological.
The cosmological symptom of megalomania is inThe fact that an individual thinks himself to be the master of the universe, the only higher being in space. The German philosopher represents the Earth as a tiny ball on the outskirts of space.
Biological symptom of the German philosopherConsiders how the vision of a person about himself like a crown of creation, which also disputes, arguing that an individual can not integrate into the natural system, use the whole that is given to him by nature.
The psychological symptom he describes is that
Considers his consciousness, "I" - the master in life. The German philosopher is sure that the true ruler of the world and man is a kind of basic, uncontrollable, unconscious and often dark beginning, which is in the will.
The global will in the notion of a German philosopher is an absolute evil. Its two key properties - the desire to be and the desire to continue your generation are manifested in all beings. The desire to be is
, Characteristic of both living and nonliving nature. In humans this
Is expressed especially clearly through
, Struggle for life. The German philosopher attaches great importance to the desire to continue the race as an opportunity to defeat the world will through the creation of offspring that will live, even when the person himself ceases to exist.