Psychological concepts

Waking and dreaming - meaning for a person

Waking is a state of mind, withWhich brain electrical activity is high, and the person interacts actively with the external environment. For a healthy state of somatics and psyche it is extremely important to maintain the natural mode of wakefulness and sleep, to go to bed in time, to sleep properly according to individual needs, to wake up as quickly as possible without an alarm clock spontaneously. It is believed that the best time to go to sleep is from about 9 to 11 pm, since up to midnight every hour of sleep is two in importance. However, with the current rhythm of life, the areas of night rest and wakefulness shift. People find it difficult to fall asleep in the evening, it is difficult to wake up in the morning, and for individuals in the internal schedule, the phase of the day and the phase of the night are replaced at all places.

What is wakefulness?

The regime of the day can be considered as a spectrumStates of activity, on one side of which there is a dream, and on the other, wakefulness is the active state of the psyche, in terms of the level of expression which in turn fluctuates from calm wakefulness to affective manifestations. In a state of calm wake, alpha rhythms prevail, and in intense wakefulness they are blocked and beta-rhythms are already activated. They can be tracked on the basis of electroencephalography.
What is the optimal time for wakefulness? Sleep on the length of takes an average of about a third of our lives. What happens if you exclude the time for a night's rest? Too long a time of wakefulness negatively affects a number of body systems, does not allow recovery of internal organs, contributes to premature aging and even the emergence of problems with the psyche.
After one sleepless night, there is a decrease in such functions as attention and
, The person becomes more irritable, decreases
. After two or three days without a night rest, serious violations in the formulation of their thoughts will appear, there may be a nervous tic and glitches in the visual analyzers up to the visual
And dark spots before the eyes. Thinking will cease to have a clear focus on the task and
, In the speech there will be cliches without a significant content of the reported material. Also, the appetite is broken, nausea may appear.
In the absence of sleep for four or five days, it is even possible
, Speech will be even more senseless, and the decisionEven simple tasks will become almost impossible. Six or seven days without sleep brings even a young man in a psychophysiological state to an old man with
and
, Appears
, The intellectualAbility, in behavior for others, oddities become more and more noticeable, and hallucinations will be both visual and auditory, and are possible in other modalities. The ability of the immune system to resist bacteria and viruses decreases, the liver works at the limit of possibilities. Without sleep a few more days - and we will observe almost a zombie, a man who looks like a living dead, without the ability to speak, think, move normally. Thinking becomes fragmented, no
To anything, there is numbness. As a result, without sleep for a long time you can even die. Even after the First World War, the mechanisms of wakefulness and sleep were investigated by the neuroanatom Konstantin von Economou. He did this on the basis of the brain of people who died from a pandemic of viral encephalitis, in which the virus struck deep structures of the brain. Analyzing these parts of the brain, he came to the conclusion that there is a wakefulness center in the posterior region of the hypothalamus, in the foreground - the center of sleep, and in the intermediate region there is a center that causes narcolepsy. Then his discoveries were ridiculed, and not a single neurologist believed him. However, after half a century they were all confirmed, and together with them
This scientist, who, possessing only meager means of that time, was able to discover what actually provides sleep and wakefulness of a person.

Sleep and wakefulness

Mechanisms that regulate wakefulness andSleep mode, very complex. Four groups of such mechanisms can be formulated, and each has its own anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, history of development and to some extent is independent of the others, although all these mechanisms are connected and located in one lobe of the cranium. But, since they are relatively autonomous, you can disassemble them as certain separate mechanisms of our whole brain.
Waking and sleeping - the significance for these peopleStates of the psyche is great. The waking of man is the most important of these mechanisms, which provides the rest of the brain's activity. The wakefulness regime is often discussed only casually, does not give it sufficient attention, although the perception, attention,
,
, Integrative and other mental systems - allThey function normally only if the wake-up mechanism functions correctly. This mechanism of wakefulness is provided in the brain by the reticular ascending activating system. Today it is proved that this is not a single system, but the largest of all the congestion of neurons located on many levels of the cerebral axis from the medulla oblongata to the prefrontal cortex and secrete a variety of chemical mediators by sending them down to the spinal cord and up to the brain .
Instead of diffuse reticular regulatingSystems, as the researchers assumed in the middle of the last century, now there are already a dozen clusters of clusters of neurons. There are sources of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, serotonin, glutamate, dopamine, histamine, some of which are unique in the body. Why such a large number of ascending systems that do one thing - depolarize the neurons of the thalamo-cortical system, shifting their potential from rest to wakefulness? This is a mystery that continues to torment neurophysiologists and somnologists. It is suggested that such a device ensures the reliability of this system.
Also note that the state of rest is very conditional,Since the thalamo-cortical system is constantly either in a state of tonic depolarization or tonic hyperpolarization, neurons are never at rest, but are always either excited or inhibited. Such a work of the thalamo-cortical system is characteristic of man and mammalian animals, whereas in cold-blooded birds these mechanisms are arranged differently. The lack of internal mechanisms of activation in the cerebral cortex creates certain problems for his work and a lot of neurological problems with which doctors work psychiatrists and neurologists.
Destruction of any of the subsystems is fraught with the mostSerious consequences, impaired consciousness, even able to cause someone. Normally, the system shutdown occurs in an organized manner as a transition from wakefulness to sleep with a normal return return. Periodic disconnection of these systems is an indispensable factor for normal recovery of the brain, but what exactly this recovery consists of is a question that even now worries somnologists and psychophysiologists. This complex system reflects the complexity of our vigorous state -
, Thinking, behavior.
The mechanism of slow sleep as a transition fromWaking to sleep and disabling the mechanisms of ascending activation is much easier than the mechanism of wakefulness. In the brain, there is only one so-called sleep center and a cluster of neurons close to it that have, in contrast to the rest of the braking neurons, very long nerve branches of the axon that innervate all the activating ascending systems and, due to projections in the cortex, inhibit its activity directly. This inhibitory block is responsible for keeping the brain in sleep mode, whereas for the transition from wakefulness to sleep, another block is responsible - part of the serotonin cells that are in the wings of this system and are the primary link that triggers the onset of sleep.
The normal, high-quality functioning of thisSystem ensures that a person entering the phase of sleep is there, and not constantly waking up, switching between sleep and wakefulness, this fragmentation of sleep would be a pathological, specific insomnia. Normally, the sleeper goes through the stages of sleep cycle after cycle, not waking up, as long as he needs it, until he sleeps and wakes up spontaneously, feeling rested and fresh.

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